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The Daily Spiritual Experience Scale, created by Dr. Lynn G. Underwood, is being used in research, organizational, and clinical settings, to investigate ordinary spiritual experiences, such as awe, deep inner peace, giving and receiving compassionate love, and feeling thankful for blessings, and their role in daily life.

Spiritual Connection in Daily Life was published in 2013.

It guides the reader as they use the 16 Daily Spiritual Experience Scale questions for personal growth, for inter-personal and organizational communication, and in therapeutic contexts. It emphasizes using the questions in an open-ended way, drawing attention to the individuals own particular experiences and setting those in context.  It includes detailed descriptions of the individual items and various themes in the items, that can help in interpretation of results. Spiritual Connection in Daily Life, International Electronic Version came out in 2016 and is available on Amazon International sites. The original paperback is also available internationally.

This is the central informational site regarding the scale and its use for clinicians and researchers. For registration and permission to use the scale or for further information, contact Lynn Underwood lynn[at] The authoritative version of the scale for research use can be downloaded here.

An open-ended and checklist version of the scale can be found here,

A new book is currently in press: Underwood, Lynn G, Using the Daily Spiritual Experience Scale in Research and Practice (August 2019 Preprint) Applelane Press. To download the preprint click here: DSES Guidebook_20190927 PreprintLynnUnderwood

It is designed for researchers and practitioners, and includes additional detailed information on various ways of using and scoring the DSES and an annotated bibiiography of 80 published studies that show the relationship of DSEs to: resiliency, stress buffering, less substance abuse and addictions, a greater sense of meaning and post-traumatic growth, more positive health behaviors, more prosocial attitudes, and diminished burnout and compassion fatigue. The book also summarizes the studies that describe interventions that increase frequency of DSEs and time course in terms of causation, such as the results from longitudinal and smartphone studies. One reason to group all of these studies together is to inform the development of preventative and intervention resources that can be used for many different kinds of people. Although much is already available on scoring, psychometrics, versions and translations in the articles already published by Underwood, this new publication will include updated and more detailed information on usage, scoring, and versions.

Lynn was interviewed on the DSES for the Australian ABC public radio program, The Spirit of Things. This is available as a podcast on iTunes. To listen to or download the program:

Key articles on the DSES

“The Daily Spiritual Experience Scale: Overview and Results,” provides an overview of the scale itself, describes why it has proven useful. The article cites major studies and discusses a number of the key studies using the scale. Religions 2:1 (2011), 29-50. It is the best article to start with.

“Ordinary Spiritual Experience: Qualitative Research, Interpretive Guidelines, and Population Distribution for the Daily Spiritual Experience Scale,” is designed to help scholars understand, use and score the DSES. Archive for the Psychology of Religion/Archiv fuer Religionspsychologie, 28:1 (2006), 181-218. This article provides the conceptual framework for the DSES, provides scoring guidelines, and includes accurate English and Spanish versions of the scale. Download a prepublication copy.

“The Daily Spiritual Experience Scale: Development, Theoretical Description, Reliability, Exploratory Factor Analysis, and Preliminary Construct Validity Using Health-Related Data”, Underwood, LG, and Teresi, JA, Annals of Behavioral Medicine 24:1 (2002), 22-33. This article describes psychometric qualities of the scale and some of its applications. J Teresi’s role in this paper was as the statistician. This paper has been cited over 1000 times in peer-reviewed literature.

Introduction to the DSES

The Daily Spiritual Experience Scale (DSES) is a 16-item self-report measure designed to assess ordinary experiences of connection with the transcendent in daily life. It includes constructs such as awe, gratitude, mercy, sense of connection with the transcendent and compassionate love. It also includes measures of awareness of discernment/inspiration and a sense of deep inner peace.

Originally developed for use in health studies, it has been increasingly used more widely in the social sciences, for program evaluation, and for examining changes in spiritual experiences over time. Also it has been used in counseling, addiction treatment settings, and religious organizations. It has been included in longitudinal health studies and in the U.S. General Social Survey that established random-sample population norms for the scale. It has publications on its psychometric validity in English, Spanish, French, Portuguese, German and Mandarin Chinese. Translations have been made into over forty languages including Hindi, Hebrew and Arabic and the scale has been effectively used in a variety of cultures. The scale has been used in over 300 published studies and the original paper has been cited in over 700 published papers.

The DSES was developed using extensive qualitative testing in a variety of groups, which has helped its capacity to be useful in a variety of settings. It was constructed to reflect an overlapping circle model of spirituality/religiousness and contains items that are more specifically theistic in nature, as well as items to tap the spiritual experience of those who are not comfortable with theistic language.

There are two major forms of the scale currently in use. One is the full 16-item scale. The second is a 6-item scale that was adapted for use in the Brief Multidimensional Measure for Religiousness and Spirituality (Idler et al, 2003). The six items are not ideal in many ways, as the wording is not exactly identical and some items are double-barreled. Of these two, the 16-item scale is much preferred, although in many studies the two scales show a high correlation in performance.

Also, various researchers have used subsets of the 16-item scale for various purposes. At this stage in the scale’s development this can be appropriate, as long as the rationale is sound. Two of the items, for example, have been used as a compassionate love subscale, and there are other possible subgroupings of items.

Factor analysis of the scale continues as research results emerge. Most studies show the scale loading on one major factor, although different populations can show different factor loadings. The Chronbach’s Alpha for the scale is consistently above 0.9. The scale performs in both a state-like as well as a trait-like manner, lending it to examinations of change over time.

Some have changed the wording of the scale items substantively and call their versions a scale of Daily Spiritual Experiences. Be cautious regarding this. The wording of this scale is critical to its effectiveness and ability to tap the construct of interest. Changes in wording can strongly affect performance. Contact the author if you have questions.

The scale has been used effectively in adolescents. It has also been used in younger children from 8-12, and for this group, subgroups of the items can be used, or oral administration with some explanation of the items may be helpful.

A checklist version and an open-ended version have also been developed. For more on this see the book and the book website.

Translations. There have been over 40 translations. Translation needs to be done carefully as subtlety and simplicity of language is particularly important and cultural sensitivity is needed. See Underwood (2006) for further advice on translating. Lynn is coordinating information on translations and assists with back translations to assure accurate articulation of the underlying construct. Please contact Dr. Underwood regarding usage and translations.