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Published DSES Studies

Some of the key published studies by others using the DSES

Many of the key studies using the scale are summarized in Underwood, L. (2011) The Daily Spiritual Experience Scale: Overview and Results, Religions 2:1, 29-50. The book, Spiritual Connection in Daily Life, Chapter 5: Research Results, Underwood, L (2013) folds in some of the research up to 2012, categorized by topic. I try to add the newest papers at the top below, otherwise, the list is somewhat alphabetical by author.

(I just did some updating of the list with about 30 studies in May 2019)

Bovero, Andrea, Valentina Ieraci, and Riccardo Torta. 2018. “Dignity in Cancer Patients with a Life Expectancy of a Few Weeks . Implementation of the Factor Structure of the Patient Dignity Inventory and Dignity Assessment for a Patient-Centered Clinical Intervention : A Cross-Sectional Study” 40. The Patient Dignity Inventory (PDI) is a tool that can lead to interesting information on dignity-related aspects of suffering. In 127 Italian hospice patients with a life expectancy of a few weeks, self-blame coping style, negative emotional and physical well-being, and depression predicted loss of dignity. Spirituality (measured using the Italian translation of the DSES) is confirmed to be positively involved in dignity enhancement.

Brenner, Allison B, and Mario Sims. 2017. “The Epidemiology of Coping in African American Adults in the Jackson Heart Study ( JHS ).”DOI:1007/s40615-017-0445-y In the the Jackson Heart Study (N = 5301) overall, the results suggest that coping varies substantially within this African American population and is driven mainly by psychosocial factors such as spirituality (measured using the DSES) and interpersonal support. Understanding these complex relationships may inform strategies by which to intervene in the stress process to mitigate the effects of stress on health and to identify vulnerable subgroups of African Americans that might need targeted interventions to reduce exposure to stressors and improve coping capacities.

Baesler, E. James. (2017). Listening to the divine song within the greater song of life. Listening: Journal of Communication Ethics, Religion, and Culture, 52(2), 85-102. Uses the DSES and book in a course setting as a way to introduce the divine and explore what it means personally for students.

Frey, Rosemary, Deborah Balmer, Jackie Robinson, Julia Slark, Heather Mcleod, Merryn Gott, and Michal Boyd. 2018. “European Journal of Integrative Medicine ‘ To a Better Place ’ : The Role of Religious Belief for Staff in Residential Aged Care in Coping with Resident Deaths.” European Journal of Integrative Medicine 19 (February): 89–99.  Using data including that from interviews and the DSES with 113 Residential Aged Care Home staff from different locations with high exposure to death and dying, strong religious/spiritual influence and religious affiliation were associated with lower scores for burnout. Greater understanding of the role of religious/spiritual beliefs in helping staff to make sense of the end-of-life experience can provide the basis for the development of staff supports enabling both improved staff well-being and resident end-of-life care.

Griffiths, Roland R, Matthew W Johnson, William A Richards, Brian D Richards, Robert Jesse, Katherine A MacLean, Frederick S Barrett, Mary P Cosimano, and Maggie A Klinedinst. 2017. “Psilocybin-Occasioned Mystical-Type Experience in Combination with Meditation and Other Spiritual Practices Produces Enduring Positive Changes in Psychological Functioning and in Trait Measures of Prosocial Attitudes and Behaviors.” Journal of Psychopharmacology, Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences with participant-attributed increases in well-being. However, little research has examined enduring changes in traits. This study administered psilocybin to participants who undertook a program of meditation/spiritual practices. Healthy participants were randomized to three groups (25 each): (1) very low-dose (1 mg/70 kg on sessions 1 and 2) with moderate-level (“standard”) support for spiritual-practice(LD-SS); (2) high-dose (20 and 30 mg/70 kg on sessions 1 and 2, respectively) with standard support (HD-SS); and (3) high-dose (20 and 30 mg/70kg on sessions 1 and 2, respectively) with high support for spiritual practice (HD-HS). Psilocybin was administered double-blind and instructions to participants/staff minimized expectancy confounds. Psilocybin was administered 1 and 2 months after spiritual-practice initiation. Outcomes at 6 months included rates of spiritual practice and persisting effects of psilocybin. Compared with low-dose, high-dose psilocybin produced greater acute and persisting effects. At 6 months, compared with LD-SS, both high-dose groups showed large significant positive changes on longitudinal measures of interpersonal closeness, gratitude, life meaning/purpose, forgiveness, death transcendence, daily spiritual experiences, religious faith and coping, and community observer ratings. Determinants of enduring effects were psilocybin-occasioned mystical-type experience and rates of meditation/spiritual practices. Psilocybin can occasion enduring trait-level increases in prosocial attitudes/behaviors and in healthy psychological functioning.

Hung, Leslie C, Reza Abbasgholizadeh, Flora Terrell Hamilton, E James Essien, and Evaristus Nwulia. 2017. “Spiritual Care May Impact Mental Health and Medication Adherence in HIV + Populations,” HIV/AIDS – Research and Palliative Care Volume July 101-9 Objective: To explore a potential role for spirituality in medication-related needs assessment for integrated care in chronically ill populations. Method: A systematic literature review was conducted to explore the impact of faith beliefs on health and/or medication adherence in individuals with depression and/or HIV+/AIDS. Retrospective electronic medical record review of adult HIV+ patients of an urban primary care clinic with integrated mental health services was conducted, with Substance Abuse and Mental Illness Symptoms Screener (SAMISS), major depressive disorder (MDD) incidence over the preceding year, and history of contact with a spiritual advisor. A convenience sample was interviewed to qualitatively assess potential medication therapy management needs and medication-related problems. Another sample was examined utilizing the Daily Spiritual Experience Scale. Results: The literature reports positive influence on both health behaviors, coping and outcomes; and poor medication adherence and treatment decisions due to patient passivity or resistance. Spiritual advisor contact (not limited to a specific religion) was significantly associated with MDD absence (1.7% vs. 15.3%, P<0.005) and inversely related to SAMISS, depression, and poor health behaviors. Patient interviews reflected significance of faith in terms of insight and acceptance of illness, the role or need for medications, coping, and medication adherence. An illustrative model was designed based on the literature and data collection. Conclusion: Spiritual assessment may help identify positive or negative influence on health. Spiritual interventions could be beneficial in promoting adherence and positive health outcomes.

Jocson, Rosanne M., Francheska Alers-Rojas, Rosario Ceballo, and Monica Arkin. 2018. “Religion and Spirituality: Benefits for Latino Adolescents Exposed to Community Violence.” Youth & Society, May, 0044118X1877271. data from 223 Latino adolescents residing in poor, urban neighborhoods, results showed significant interaction effects between community violence exposure and spirituality/religiosity. Specifically, personal victimization and witnessing violence were associated with higher depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms at low and average levels of spirituality, but not at high levels of spirituality (measured using the DSES). Witnessing violence was associated with higher PTSD symptoms at low and average levels of religious importance at home, but not at high levels of religious importance at home. Finally, witnessing violence was associated with higher depressive symptoms at low and average levels of religious involvement, but not at high levels of religious involvement. Highlights the potential benefits of supporting spiritual and religious development in Latino youth exposed to community violence.

Karami, Amir, and Farhad Kahrazei. 2018. “The Role of Daily Spiritual Experiences in Hope and Posttraumatic Growth in Patients.” Health, Spirituality and Medical Ethics5 (2): 23–29.The process of treatment and diagnosis of cancer sometimes leads to posttraumatic growth. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of daily spiritual experiences in hope and posttraumatic growth among patients with leukemia. 70 patients with leukemia in Zahedan, Iran, were studied using the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES), the Hope Scale, and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, and using correlation and stepwise regression analysis. Total score on the DSES (Persian translation) and scores on three of its subscales were directly and significantly correlated with hope and posttraumatic growth, and only the total score on the DSES could predict hope. The total score on the DSES and the subscale feeling of responsibility for others could predict posttraumatic growth.

Knabb, Joshua J, and Veola E Vazquez. 2018. “A Randomized Controlled Trial of a 2-Week Internet-Based Contemplative Prayer Program for Christians With Daily Stress” 5 (1): 37–53.In this 2-week, two-armed randomized controlled trial, the authors investigated an online contemplative prayer program for Christians with daily stress. Drawing from the stress and coping, mindfulness, religious coping, and contemplative literatures, the brief program sought to help Christians with daily stress change their evaluation of environmental demands by surrendering to God’s perceived care. With roots in the contemplative Christian tradition, the Jesus Prayer was practiced both formally and informally for a 2-week period of time. Findings revealed both within- and between groups differences, with the Jesus Prayer group (n _ 44) outperforming a wait-list group (n _ 42) on measures of stress and surrender as a form of religious coping. DSE’s increased over time in the intervention group in a dose response way.

Langer, Bhavna, Rashmi Kumari, Remia Mahajan, Rajiv K Gupta, Parveen Singh, and Neha Choudhary. 2017. “Psychological Health and Its Associates – A Comparative Study among Migrants and Non Migrants in a Rural Area of Northern India .” Indian Journal of Community Health 29 (4): 1–6.A sample of 137 migrants and 267 non migrants were analysed in rural India. DSES scores were higher in migrants (p=0.016). Tools used were the General Health Questionnaire–12, Religiosity scale by Wilkes, The Daily Spiritual Experience Scale (Hindi translation) and the COPE scale. Young age and spirituality showed a statistically significant correlation with better psychological health (p=0.036, 0.000&0.013resp). Psychosocial assistance to migrant populations focusing on educational, occupational & religious/spiritual issues can reduce vulnerabilities.

Lee, Sharon Y. , Crystal L. Park & Amy E. Hale(2016)Relations of trauma exposure with current religiousness and spirituality,Mental Health, Religion & Culture,19:6,493-505,DOI: 10.1080/13674676.2016.1207161 Many theorists posit that religiousness/spirituality (RS) may change after trauma. However, empirical findings regarding RS following trauma are inconclusive. The present study examined the relationship between potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and current RS by considering the cumulative effect of PTEs and multiple dimensions of RS. In our sample of 245 undergraduates (60% female, 79% White), there were no differences in RS between participants who did and did not have PTEs. When analysed as a continuous variable, the number of PTEs was positively correlated with many RS dimensions (i.e., daily spiritual experiences, religious strain, religious comfort, provident and challenging God images, belief in God) but not all (i.e., organised religious involvement, belief in afterlife, benevolent God image). These results suggest that PTEs relate distinctly to different aspects of RS and that examining multiple dimensions of RS may be a more informative way of studying this association.

Lee, Matthew T, Maria E Pagano, Byron R Johnson, Stephen G Post, GeorgeS Leibowitz, and Matthew Dudash. 2017. “From Defiance to Reliance : Spiritual Virtue as a Pathway Towards Desistence , Humility , and Recovery Among Juvenile Offenders” Spirituality in Clinical Practice2017, Vol. 4, No. 3, 161–175.This study examined the impact of two “spiritual virtues”—service to others and the spiritual experience of love—on sobriety, character development (humility), and recidivism in 195 adolescents with substance abuse disorders. This study used a subset of the DSES items to measure the spiritual experience of compassionate love. Defiance was associated with higher incarceration, but the combination of service and love predicted lower incarceration and mediated the impact of defiance.

Mathew, George C, and Most Read. 2018. “Role of Spirituality and Religiosity on Employee Commitment and Performance” International Journal of Indian Culture and Business Management 10–11. structural equation modelling, this study examines the importance of design elements in enabling job satisfaction, commitment and performance of an employee. Data from teachers of six institutional categories in India using the DSES was collected and analysed. Findings suggest that spirituality has a direct influence on job satisfaction, which further has mediating effect on employees’ commitment and performance.

McFadden, Susan, and Melissa Lunsman. 2009. “Arts Involvement and Spirituality as Sources of Well-Being in Older People.” Journal of Religion, Spirituality & Aging21 (4): 330–43. and involvement with the arts have been individually studied as contributors to late-life well-being. This study explored relationships among arts involvement, as measured by a six-item scale constructed for this research, experiences of the transcendent in everyday life, as measured by the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES), and morale, as measured by the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS). Participants were adults over age 40 (N = 90). Only arts scores significantly predicted PGCMS scores (B = 0.17, t = 2.26, p < 0.05). In addition, DSES scores and arts scores were significantly correlated (r = 0.50, p < 0.01). These results are discussed in terms of growing interest in programs that promote dialogue between the arts and religion.

Mackinlay, Elizabeth, and Richard Burns. 2017. “Spirituality Promotes Better Health Outcomes and Lowers Anxiety about Aging : The Importance of Spiritual Dimensions for Baby Boomers as They Enter Older Adulthood.” Journal of Religion, Spirituality & Aging29 (4): 248–65. mixed methods study used survey and focus groups methods to investigate spirituality in a sample of baby boomers (N = 143). Participants comprised staff, children of adults in care, and Uniting Church congregational members (Australia). We examined associations between physical and mental health, and ageing anxiety with spirituality and whether baby boomer spirituality (measured with the DSES) buffered the impact of negative life events. Focus groups revealed fears of future frailty, loss, and fears of dementia. Religious affiliation in study was lower, yet spirituality was important, even with those without religious affiliation. Closeness of association of staff with older people in their care seemed to account for lower levels of fear of older people amongst staff, but higher fears of future loss compared with the other groups. Higher levels of spirituality were related to better mental and physical health and lower anxiety about and fear of ageing, and buffered the impact of negative life events where they occurred.

Park, Crystal L, Thomas Blank, Crystal L Park, Dalnim Cho, Thomas O Blank, and Jennifer H Wortmann. 2013. “Cognitive and Emotional Aspects of Fear of Recurrence : Predictors and Relations with Adjustment in Young to Middle-Aged …. Cognitive and Emotional Aspects of Fear of Recurrence : Predictors and Relations with Adjustment in Young to Middle-Aged Cancer Survivors,” Psycho-Oncology 22(7) 1630-1638. .Investigated predictors of emotional (worry) and cognitive (perceived risk) dimensions of fear of recurrence (FOR) and their relationships with psychological well-being in a sample of young and middle-aged adult cancer survivors between 18 and 55 years old and diagnosed from 1 to 3 years prior. A total of 250 participants were recruited, and 167 responded to a 1-year follow-up. Demographic and psychosocial variables were assessed at baseline, and FOR and psychological well-being were assessed at follow-up. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that spirituality (measured with the DSES) was the only predictor of perceived risk independent of the effect of race, even when worry about general health was controlled. For the emotional dimension of FOR, avoidance coping predicted higher worry, but when controlling for a general tendency to worry about one’s health, none of the psychosocial variables predicted worries about cancer’s return.

Rindt-Hoffman, Stacy, Jerry L. Kernes, and Ngoc H. Bui (2019) Attachment Style, Spirituality, and Compassionate Love Among Mental Health Professionals. Journal of Mental Health Counseling: March 2019, Vol. 41, No. 2, pp. 112-126.This study sought to examine whether attachment styles and spirituality would predict compassionate love for close others, a specific close other, and strangers and humanity. The sample of 156 (47 male, 109 female) mental health professionals completed online surveys. As expected, results indicated that greater secure attachment and greater spirituality related to greater expression of compassionate love for a specific other.

Patel, Ruchi. 2018. “Compassion Fatigue Among Mental Healthcare Providers and The Impact on Overall Wellbeing.” Dissertation U of San Francisco PhD.One hundred and thirty-seven participants across the United States completed the electronic survey, which included a demographic questionnaire, the Professional Quality of Life Scale, and the Daily Spiritual Experience Scale. Participants represented a diverse sample with respect to age, years of experience, and educational background.The majority of mental healthcare providers in this study reported experiencing average levels of compassion fatigue. There was no significant relationship between compassion fatigue and gender, age, race, number of years in the field, or employment setting. Providers who reported greater spirituality (measured with the DSES) experienced less compassion fatigue.

Polson, Edward C, Rachel Gillespie, and Dennis R Myers. 2018 “Hope and Resilience among Vulnerable , Older Persons” Social Work and Christianity 45 (1): 60–81. In a sample of at-risk, community-dwelling older adults in a central Texas community (n = 64), Hope is a strong and significant predictor of resilience among older adults and hope tends to mediate the effect of spiritual experience (DSES) on resilience. Drawing on these findings, we discuss potential implications for social workers and congregational leaders working with older adults for future scholarship on hope and resilience.

Robinson, Elizabeth A, James Cranford, Jon Webb, and Kirk Brower. 2007. “Six-Month Changes in Spirituality, Religiousness, and Heavy Drinking in a Treatment-Seeking Sample.” Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 68 (2): 282–90. Longitudinal survey data were collected from 123 outpatients with alcohol use disorders (66% male; mean age = 39; 83% white) on 10 measures of S/R, covering behaviors, beliefs, and experiences, including the Daily Spiritual Experiences and Purpose in Life scales. Drinking behaviors were assessed with the Timeline Followback interview. Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) participation and attendance were also measured. Over 6 months, there were statistically significant increases in half of the S/R measures, specifically the Daily Spiritual Experiences scale, the Purpose in Life scale, S/R practices scale, Forgiveness scale, and the Positive Religious Coping scale. There were also clinically and statistically significant decreases in alcohol use. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that increases in Daily Spiritual Experiences and in Purpose in Life scores were associated with increased odds of no heavy drinking at 6 months, even after controlling for AA involvement and gender. CONCLUSIONS: In the first 6 months of recovery, many dimensions of S/R increased, particularly those associated with behaviors and experiences. Values, beliefs, self-assessed religiousness, perceptions of God, and the use of negative religious coping did not change. Increases in day-to-day experiences of spirituality and sense of purpose/meaning in life were associated with absence of heavy drinking at 6 months, regardless of gender and AA involvement. The results of this descriptive study support the perspective of many clinicians and recovering individuals that changes in alcoholics’ S/R occur in recovery and that such changes are important to sobriety.

Rudaz, Myriam, Thomas Ledermann, and Joseph G Grzywacz. 2019. “The Influence of Daily Spiritual Experiences and Gender on Subjective Well-Being over Time in Cancer Survivors.”Archive for the Psychology of Religion. 1-13.  Cancer survivors are at risk for poor subjective well-being. Using data from the second and third wave of the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study, we examined the extent to which daily spiritual experiences at baseline moderate the association between subjective well-being at baseline and approximately 10 years later in cancer survivors (n = 288). Regression analyses, controlled for age, educational attainment, and religious/spiritual coping, showed that daily spiritual experiences moderated the association between life satisfaction at baseline and follow-up. Specifically, high spiritual experiences enhanced life satisfaction over time in cancer survivors with low life satisfaction at baseline. Also, daily spiritual experiences moderated the association between positive affect at baseline and follow-up, and this moderating effect was different for women and men.

Stewart, Chris, Lori Drum, and Lisa Rapp. 2018. “Exploring the Relationship of Mental Health and Spirituality to Family Functioning: Does Spirituality Add to Our Understanding.” Journal of Applied Juvenile Justice Services, 75–96.Exploring whether spirituality may act as a protective factor for overall family functioning, particularly in the presence of other identified factors. This study sought to examine the relationship of adolescent spirituality and mental health with family functioning in a sample of incarcerated adolescent males. A longitudinal design was employed to measure both spirituality and mental health during incarceration and post discharge from a boot camp. Results support the likely importance of adolescent spirituality as a protective factor for family functioning. (FYI: According to the most recent data from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, over 50,000 youth were held in some type of residential facility during 2014. Residential facilities are inclusive of a wide variety of modalities including detention, residential treatment, youth prisons, wilderness programs, group homes, and boot camps.) Over the course of the time measured there were significant increases for two measured spirituality dimensions: Daily Spiritual Experience and Private Religious Practices. The overall regression results also suggest however, that dimensions of both mental health and spirituality may contribute to overall family functioning. So, while Forgiveness was not significant, Daily Spiritual Experience was a significant predictor for family communication and behavioral control , even taking into account the significant mental health factors. It is interesting to note that this dimension not only changed over the incarceration period but also demonstrated significance as a protective factor for family functioning.   The significance of Daily Spiritual Experience in both models demonstrates that spirituality, and particularly an everyday spiritual awareness and application, may be an important consideration in improving family functioning.

Wnuk, Marcin. 2008. “Comparison of Existential and Religious-Spiritual Aspects of Students ’ and Alcohol Addicts ’ Functioning,” Roczniki Psychologiczne/Annals of Psychology 11(2) 1–6. The sample consisted of 70 participants of Alcoholics Anonymous from Pozna, Poland,and 53 students from Eugeniusz Piasecki University School of Physical Education in Pozna.In comparison to students, alcoholics anonymous had stronger religious faith, stronger intrinsic and personal extrinsic motivation, prayed and went to church more frequently. They were also characterized by more frequent using positive religious coping and reported more frequent DSE’s. Among students, they found positive relationships between spiritual experiences and meaning of life.

George, Login S, and Crystal L Park. 2017. “Does Spirituality Confer Meaning in Life among Heart Failure Patients and Cancer Survivors?” Psychology of Religion and Spirituality 9 (1). Higher baseline spirituality (measured by DSES) predicted more positive change in meaning over time. These results support the notion that spirituality can provide increased meaning in life among individuals dealing with substantial adversity.

Tong, EMW. (2017). Spirituality and the Temporal Dynamics of Transcendental Positive Emotions.Psychology of Religion and Spirituality. 9(1), 70–81.This study examined the relationships between individual differences in spirituality, as measured by the Daily Spiritual Experience (DSE) scale, and the temporal dynamics of transcendental positive emotions. Using event-sampling, in which 390 participants rated their emotions repeatedly at 30-min intervals over 2 days, higher DSE was associated with higher inertia in transcendental positive emotions and greater switch from negative emotions to transcendental positive emotions across the 2 days. Importantly, these relationships were independent of the Five-Factor Model personality constructs, were generally not replicated in other emotions, and were also independent of the temporal dynamics of other emotions. The article discusses, among other issues, what these findings might mean for the well-being implications of spirituality.

Silfee, Valerie J, Christina F Haughton, Stephenie C Lemon, Vilma Lora, and Milagros C Rosal. 2017. “Spirituality and Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior among Latino Men and Women in Massachusetts” 27 (1): 3–10. Higher DSES predicts less sedentary behavior in this population of 602 Latio adults from 21-85.

Syukrowardi, D. A., Wichaikull, S., Bormann, S. Von, (2017). Spirituality as an internal protective factor of resilience in children after being exposed to flooding, 5(4), 1474–1479. The main purpose of this study was to investigate how internal factors (age, illness, gender, emotion, behaviour, spirituality and physical activity) predict resilience of elementary school-aged children exposed to the major flood in Serang, Indonesia. The total final samples were 162 children who were 9-12 years and who were studied in 3rd to 6th years. Age, illness, gender, and emotion were not significantly correlated with resilience. The Daily Spiritual Experience Scale, The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and The Physical Activity Questionnaire were utilized in this study. Flooding is considered as a risk for children. In order to prevent the potential problems due to flooding, children need protective factors. This study discovered that high spirituality increases resilience of children. Therefore, spirituality is well thought-out as an internal protective factor of resilience. This study suggested the developing of nursing intervention with religion-activities.

Pandya, S. P. (2017). Spirituality, Happiness, and Psychological Well-being in 13- to 15-year olds: A Cross-country Longitudinal RCT Study. Journal of Pastoral Care & Counseling, 71(1), 12–26. Based on a study of 5339 adolescents from 60 schools across 15 countries, this paper reports on the effect of spirituality (measured by the DSES) on their happiness and psychological well-being. A customized spiritual program was administered and post-treatment outcome variable scores of the experimental group were higher. Adolescents from relatively affluent nations, boys, Christians, and those who self-practiced scored higher post-test. This makes a case for nominating spirituality as an important developmental variable for 13- to 15-year olds.

Bailly, Nathalie, Guillaume Martinent, Claude Ferrand, Océane Agli, Caroline Giraudeau, Kamel Gana, and Nicolas Roussiau. 2018. “Spirituality, Social Support, and Flexibility among Older Adults : A Five-Year Longitudinal Study,” Int Psychogeriatr. 30(12):17451752. five-year longitudinal study of 567 participants followed French non-institutionalized older  adults (T1: 2007;T2: 2009; T3: 2012). Spirituality was measured using the French translation of the DSES. The results showed: (1) spirituality is stable over time, (2) older women reported higher levels of spirituality than older men, and those who had a religion reported higher scores of spirituality than their counterparts who had no religion (these effects were strong and clinically meaningful), (3) older adults who reported higher levels of social support and flexibility also reported higher levels of spirituality, and (4) the slope of spirituality seemed to accelerate at time points at which participants also had higher levels of social support and flexibility.

Kim, S.-H., Martin, B. J., & Nolty, A. T. (2016). The Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance of the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 26(3), 240–251.   The measurement invariance testing of the one-factor CFA model with seven correlated residuals supported full measurement invariance of factor loadings, thresholds, and residual variances. The factor mean for the women was .841 units (Cohen’s d = .496) higher than it was for the men, indicating that higher levels of daily spiritual experiences for women reported in gender comparison studies in the United States are not likely to be an artifact of bias in the questionnaire.

Choudhary, Tarun, and A V S Madnawat. 2017. “Spirituality and Compassionate Love in Psychiatrists and Psychiatric Social Workers.” Indian Journal of Positive Psychology 8 (1): 79-82. Spirituality (DSES) predicted more compassionate love, sample size 400 Jaipur City, India.

Scherer, L. L., Allen, J. A., & Harp, E. R. (2016). Grin and bear it: An examination of volunteers’ fit with their organization, burnout and spirituality. Burnout Research, 3(1), 1–10. Volunteer turnover presents a significant problem for nonprofits. Surprisingly few studies have examined volunteer intentions to quit. We investigated whether the proposed mediated relationship depended upon volunteer daily spirituality, or the tendency to daily experience the transcendent dimensions of life. Using a sample of volunteers from a variety of nonprofit organizations (N = 355), poor volunteer fit positively predicted volunteer intentions to quit through their burnout. Further, the full mediation model was moderated by individuals’ level of spirituality [measured with the DSES], with volunteers reporting higher spirituality having lower quitting intentions compared to those lower in spirituality.

Scheiman, S., Upenieks, L., & Ellison, C. G. (2017). “ Love Thy Self ? How Belief in a Supportive God Shapes Self-Esteem ,” Review of Religious Research · March 2017Analyses of a national probability sample of adults from the U.S. (2004 General Social Survey) reveal two central findings: (1) divine support helps to explain a positive association between religious involvement and self-esteem; (2) divine support strengthens that association. (Divine support measured with items from the DSES.)

Crone, T. S. (2015). The Influence of Affective Priming on One’s Perceived Relationship to God. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 43(3), 204–211.

Dong, M., Wu, S., Zhu, Y., Jin, S., & Zhang, Y. (2017). Secular Examination of Spirituality- Prosociality Association : Survey Research in Nonreligious-Based Populations in China. Archive for the Psychology of Religion, (January) 2017.  Religious beliefs in Chinese cultural background, especially in Chinese secular society, have rarely been systematically investigated. The nonreligious-based population in China endorses certain supernatural beliefs or has related transcendent experience, even though they usually claim themselves as non-believers. Therefore, the current research examined the spirituality-prosociality association in Chinese secular background, demonstrating how spiritual connection with the transcendence (measured using the DSES) related to individual secular social life. A total of 440 Chinese participants completed our questionnaires in three survey studies. The results showed that: 1) for the nonreligious-based population in China, spirituality was positively connected with personal prosocial trait, prosocial attitude, and prosocial behavior; 2) the prosocial trait of compassionate love partially mediated the association between spirituality and daily prosocial expenses on time and money; and 3) personal emphasis on moral principles such as ultimate justice beliefs partially mediated the association between spirituality and interpersonal altruism in organizational settings.

Saffari, M., & Sheykh-oliya, H. A. Z. et. al. (2017). Validation of the Persian version of the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale ( DSES ) in Pregnant Women : A Proper Tool to Assess Spirituality Related to Mental Health. Journal of Religion and Health.     Assessing spirituality in healthy pregnant women may lead to supportive interventions that will improve their care. A psychometrically valid measure such as the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES) may be helpful in this regard. A total of 377 pregnant women were recruited from three general hospitals located in Tehran, Iran. Administered scales were the Persian translation of the DSES, Duke University Religion Index, Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith scale, and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, as well as demographic measures. Reliability of the DSES was tested using Cronbach’s alpha for internal consistency and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for test–retest stability. Scale validity was assessed by criterion-related tests, known-groups comparison, and exploratory factor analysis. Participant’s mean age was 27.7 (4.1), and most were nulliparous (70%). The correlation coefficient between individual items on the scale and the total score was greater than 0.30 in most cases. Cronbach’s alpha for the scale was 0.90. The ICC for 2-week test–retest reliability was high (0.86). Relationships between similar and dissimilar scales indicated acceptable convergent and divergent validity. The factor structure of the scale indicated a single factor that explained 59% of the variance. The DSES was found to be a reliable and valid measure of spirituality in pregnant Iranian women. This scale may be used to examine the relationship between spirituality and health outcomes, research that may lead to supportive interventions in this population.

Parsa, Y., Mirmalek, S. A., Kani, F. E., Aidun, A., Salimi-tabatabaee, S. A., Yadollah-damavandi, S., … Branch, S. (2016). Electronic Physician ( ISSN : 2008-5842 ), (May), 2416–2424. Introduction: The present study was performed with the aim to examine the association between spiritual experiences and life satisfaction with death anxiety in 190 elderly people visiting the health and medical centers of Neyshabur city, Iran. A significant positive association between spiritual experiences [DSES] and life satisfaction and a significant negative association between spiritual experiences and death anxiety was found.

Kerksieck, P., Büssing, A., Frick, E. et al. J Relig Health (2016). doi:10.1007/s10943-016-0322-8  Reduced Sense of Coherence Due to Neuroticism: Are Transcendent Beliefs Protective Among Catholic Pastoral Workers? We were interested in the moderating role of religious trust (RT) and transcendence perception operationalized as daily spiritual experiences (DSE) on the aforementioned relationship among religious individuals. We applied a cross-sectional study among a sample of 8594 pastoral workers using standardized questionnaires. Multiple regression and moderator analysis displayed the relationships between big five personality variables and sense of coherence. Neuroticism was identified as a negative predictor to sense of coherence, indicating impairment on this psychological resource. RT and DSE appear to function as moderators that buffer the negative effects of neuroticism on sense of coherence among religious persons.

Churakova, I., Burlaka, V., & Parker, T. W. (2017). Relationship Between Alcohol Use, Spirituality, and Coping. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. 10.1007/s11469-017-9759-6  Authors investigated a relationship between the frequency of alcohol consumption, spirituality, and coping with everyday life events in a cross-sectional, community-based sample of 320 adults in Ukraine, the country with one of the highest alcohol consumption levels in the world. Findings suggest that specific coping behaviors, younger age, and lower spirituality [Using the DSES, p<.001] are involved in higher frequency of alcohol consumption among Ukrainian adults.

Wnuk, Marcin. 2008. “Comparison of Existential and Religious-Spiritual Aspects of Students ’ and Alcohol Addicts ’ Functioning,” 1–6. AA participants greater DSES than students. Students higher DSES predicted more sense of meaning in life, and prosocial motivation.


Akin, A., & Akin, U. (2015). Does Self-Compassion Predict Spiritual Experiences of Turkish University Students? Journal of Religion and Health. doi:10.1007/s10943-015-0138-y The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive role of self-compassion on spiritual experiences. Participants were 285 university students. In this study, the self-compassion scale and the spiritual experiences scale were used. Self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness factors of self-compassion were found positively, and self-judgment, isolation, and over-identification factors of self-compassion were found negatively related to spiritual experiences. According to regression results, spiritual experiences were predicted negatively by self-judgment and over-identification. Further common humanity predicted spiritual experiences in a positive way. Self-compassion has explained 21 % of the variance in spiritual experiences.

Anjum, Q. (2013). Impact of individual’s spirit at work on psychological well -being of employees: Moderating role of organizational culture. SSRN 2196678, 2196678Individual’s spirit at work [measured using the DSES] reduces job stress and burnout, especially in the context of a supportive organizational culture.

Amr, M., El-Mogy, A., and El-Masry, R. (2013) Adherence in Egyptian patients with schizophrenia: the role of insight, medication beliefs and spirituality, Arab J. PsychiatryHigher scores on the DSES predicted better adherence to treatment.

Asby, A. T., Heads, A. M. B., & Dickson, J. W. (2016). Living With Maternal HIV: Spirituality, Depression, And Family Functioning, 7(1), 15–22. Risk factors such as depression and low SES often affect an HIV infected mother’s ability to function within her family. Spirituality may interact with such risk factors contributing to the resiliency of these mothers. The current study explored spirituality’s influence on the relationship between depression and perceptions of family functioning in African American women living with HIV. High levels of spirituality (measured using 6-item DSES) were associated with decreased psychological distress and spirituality served as a significant predictor of family cohesion. Findings from this study support the importance of spirituality in the lives of African American women living with HIV and their families.

Barber, J. A, Rosenheck, R. a, Armstrong, M., and Resnick, S. G. (2008) Monitoring the dissemination of peer support in the VA Healthcare System., Community Ment. Health J. 44, 433–41.   In a program providing vet-to-vet support for those with chronic psychiatric disorders, the paid facilitators had a positive effect on spirituality as measured by the DSES as well as engagement in meaningful activities.

Barton, Y. A, & Miller, Lisa. (2015). Spirituality and Positive Psychology Go Hand in Hand: An Investigation of Multiple Empirically Derived Profiles and Related Protective Benefits. Journal of Religion and Health. We investigate the relationship between personal spirituality and positive psychology traits. A sample of 3966 adolescents and emerging adults and 2014 older adults completed a survey assessing daily spiritual experiences, forgiveness, gratitude, optimism, grit, and meaning. To assess the relative protective benefits of profiles, we also assessed the level of depressive symptoms and frequency of substance use (tobacco, marijuana, alcohol, and heavy alcohol use). Results suggested that personal spirituality and positive psychology traits go hand in hand. Whereas level of depression was found to be inversely associated with positive psychology traits and personal spirituality, personal spirituality was uniquely protective against degree of substance use across both age cohorts. Overall interpretation of the study findings suggests that personal spirituality may be foundational to positive psychology traits in the majority of people.

Batara, J. B. L. (2015). Overlap of religiosity and spirituality among Filipinos and its implications towards religious prosociality. International Journal of Research Studies in Psychology, 4(3), 3–21. Results indicate that the religiosity and spirituality[measured using the DSES] among Filipinos are strongly associated. Moreover, result on moderated hierarchical regression analysis shows that prosociality among Filipinos does not depend on the social categorization of the target of help, different than the results in Western countries. Together, these results reflect the dynamics of religiosity and prosocial behavior among Filipinos.

Bennett, K. S., and Shepherd, J. M. (2012) Depression in Australian Women: the Varied Roles of Spirituality and Social Support. J Health Psychol. 2013. 18(3):429-38. Significant correlations were found between spiritual experience and depression, whereby individuals who reported higher spirituality measured by the DSES also reported higher rates of social support and lower levels of depression. A major finding from this study was that spirituality accounted for a significant proportion of variance in depressive symptoms beyond the mediating effect of social support.

Brelsford, G. M., Luquis, R., & Murray-Swank, N. A. (2011). College Students’ Permissive Sexual Attitudes: Links to Religiousness and Spirituality. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 21(2), 127-136. Routledge.    Clear associations exist between religiousness and conservative sexual attitudes, but there is a paucity of research on spirituality’s interaction. In this study, the authors examined the link between 297 male and 642 female college students’ reports on sexual attitudes coupled with multidimensional measures of intrapersonal and interpersonal aspects of spirituality and religiousness. Results indicated significant links between private religious practices, daily spiritual experiences [DSES], and conservative sexual attitudes for all respondents. However, for male but not female participants, self-reported spirituality had significant inverse correlation with permissive sexual attitudes. Further, spiritual disclosure and self-reported extent of religiousness were related to female participants’ reports of more conservative sexual attitudes. Finally, hierarchical regression analyses found that spirituality [DSES] provided unique variance toward conservative sexual attitudes for male but not female participants. Implications of these findings are discussed.

Camp, S. D., Klein-Saffran, J., Kwon, O. (Karl), Daggett, D. M., & Joseph, V. (2006). An Exploration Into Participation in a Faith-Based Prison Program. Criminology and Public Policy, 5(3), 529–550. doi:10.1111/j.1745-9133.2006.00387.   (Used DSES as an outcome measure).

Cavazos Vela, J., V. Castro, L. Cavazos, M. Cavazos, and S. L. Gonzalez. 2014. “Understanding Latina/o Students’ Meaning in Life, Spirituality, and Subjective Happiness.” Journal of Hispanic Higher Education (August 4). doi:10.1177/1538192714544524.One-hundred nineteen Latina/o college students provided perceptions of presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, daily spiritual experiences, and subjective happiness. Perceptions of meaning in life and daily spiritual experiences were significant predictors of subjective happiness. A discussion regarding the importance of these findings is provided, and implications for university staff are offered.

Chamratrithirong, A., Miller, B. A., Byrnes, H. F., Rhucharoenpornpanich, O., Cupp, P. K., Rosati, M. J., Chookhare, W. (2010). Social Science & Medicine Spirituality within the family and the prevention of health risk behavior among adolescents in Bangkok , Thailand. Social Science & Medicine, 71(10), 1855–1863. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.08.020

Cheadle, ACD, and CD Schetter. 2014. “Spiritual and Religious Resources in African American Women Protection From Depressive Symptoms After Childbirth.” Clinical Psychological Science published online 1 May 2014. doi:10.1177/2167702614531581.

Cobb, M., Dowrick, C., & Lloyd-Williams, M. (2012). What can we learn about the spiritual needs of palliative care patients from the research literature? Journal of pain and symptom management, 43(6), 1105–19. doi:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2011.06.017  (Review article highlighting the value of the DSES)

Cornelius, Llewellyn, and Donna Harrington. A Social Justice Approach to Survey Design and Analysis. Oxford University Press, 2014. Uses an extended description of how the DSES was developed as an case study of a scale that was developed with a sensitivity to issues of diversity and complexity.

Creech, C. A., Handal, P. J., Worley, S. A., Pashak, T. J., Perez, E. J., & Caver, L. (2013). Changing trends in ritual attendance and spirituality throughout the college years. Psychology, 4(12), 994–997. According to previous literature, levels of religiousness decrease among emerging adults, but similar research has not been done regarding levels of spirituality. The current study examined the responses of college students to measures of religiousness and spirituality. The participants in the study were from a private, religiously affiliated university in the Midwest, between ages 18 and 24. Significant differences were found between first-year and upper-class participants on religious attendance, non-religious attendance, and the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale.

Currier, J. M., Kim, S.-H., Sandy, C., & Neimeyer, R. a. (2012). The factor structure of the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale: Exploring the role of theistic and nontheistic approaches at the end of life. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 4(2), 108–122. doi:10.1037/a0027710    In 2 samples— one comprised of patients receiving hospice care and a second of health care professionals working in End of Life (EOL) contexts, the DSES items consistently loaded according to theistic and nontheistic experiences of spirituality. In addition, when controlling for the effects of religious affiliation and intrinsic religiousness, hospice patients’ responses on the theistic and nontheistic factors were differentially predictive of their attitudes toward death and psychological well-being. While other results were not entirely dismissive of a 1-factor solution for the instrument, the combined evidence of this investigation indicates that a failure to appreciate the role of theism could lead clinicians and researchers to overlook centrally defining aspects of the spiritual experiences of many people at the EOL.

Currier, J. M., Mallot, J., Martinez, T. E., Sandy, C., and Neimeyer, R. a. (2013) Bereavement, religion, and posttraumatic growth: A matched control group investigation., Psycholog. Relig. Spiritual. 5, 69–77. This study examined the intersection between bereavement, religion, and posttraumatic growth (PTG). A total of 369 young adults completed the Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness/Spirituality [includes eight of the DSES items]  and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (Tedeschi & Calhoun, 1996), divided equally into three groups: one bereaved by a violent loss (accident, suicide, or homicide) in the prior two years, one bereaved by a nonviolent death in the prior two years, and a third, nonbereaved group that experienced a general life stressor in the two years preceding the study. Individuals in the two bereaved groups generally endorsed greater religiousness when compared with persons in the nonbereaved group (as assessed by daily spiritual experiences, organizational religiousness, religious coping, forgiveness, and religious support). In addition, survivors who had lost loved ones to a violent death had higher scores across all domains of PTG and reported more distress symptomatology. When controlling for demographics and other study variables, bereavement status and religion factors significantly increased the explained variance in participants’ perceptions of PTG and psychological distress. Although the study design restricts the ability to draw any causal conclusions, these findings highlight the possible spiritual impact of bereavement and how specific dimensions can contribute to growth and healing in the adjustment process.With the exception of the religious support variable, bivariate analyses revealed positive associations between all religion factors and PTG domains.Viewed in the context of this study, this pattern of results raises the possibility that whereas certain dimensions of religion (e.g., religious coping, organizational religiousness) might be more linked with PTG, other aspects could figure more prominently in accounting for postbereavement distress symptomatology mitigation over the adjustment process (e.g.,daily spiritual experiences, religious support).

Davis, Chad, William Blake Dutton, Taryn Durant, Rachel a Annunziato, and David Marcotte. 2014. “Achieving Cultural Congruency in Weight Loss Interventions: Can a Spirituality-Based Program Attract and Retain an Inner-City Community Sample?” Journal of Obesity 2014 (January): 641939. doi:10.1155/2014/641939.

Doué, C. M., & Roussiau, N. (2015). Religiosité et Épisodes Dépressifs Chez les Migrants Africains Séropositifs : La Médiation de la Santé Subjective Religiosity and Depressive Episodes Among African Migrant -positive: The Mediation of Subjective Health. Archive for the Psychology of Religion, 37(3), 358–378.

Einolf, C. (2013). Daily Spiritual Experiences and Prosocial Behavior. Social Indicators Research January 2013, Volume 110, Issue 1, pp 71-87.   This paper examines how the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES) relates to range of prosocial behaviors, using a large, nationally representative U.S. data set. It finds that daily spiritual experiences are a statistically and substantively significant predictor of volunteering, charitable giving, and helping individuals one knows personally. Daily spiritual experiences better predict helping to distant others than to friends and family, indicating that they may motivate helping by fostering an extensive definition of one’s moral community. The relationship between the DSES and helping is not moderated by sympathy and is robust to the inclusion of most religiosity measures. However, the relationship becomes non-significant for most helping behaviors when measures of meditation, prayer, and mindfulness are included in a regression equation. The DSES is particularly effective in predicting helping behaviors among people who do not belong to a religious congregation, indicating that it may measure spiritual motivations for helping among people who are not conventionally religious.

Emam, Mahmoud, and Suaad Al-Lawati. 2014. “Spiritual Experiences, Personal Commitment: Relationship With Work Stress Among Support Staff for Children with Disabilities in Oman.” Journal of Disability & Religion 18 (4) (December 16): 340–360. doi:10.1080/23312521.2014.966439.   Background: The development of a meaningful career for support staff working with children who have disabilities is part of a process of self-exploration and crystallization of identity. Such process is determined by several individual characteristics including spirituality and personal commitment. This study examined whether both constructs can predict levels of stress in disability support staff in Oman. Additionally this study examined how both constructs are perceived by support staff in relation to the stress related to serving and supporting children with disabilities in disability centers in Oman. Methods: A mixed method approach was used to collect quantitative and qualitative data. For quantitative data, a cross-sectional design involved administration of a short survey that examined spiritual experiences (DSE), personal commitment (PC), and stress in 142 female support staff from community disability centers in Oman. For qualitative data, focus group were conducted to interview a cohort of support staff who took a two-year specialized course in special education at a Public University in Oman. Results: Multiple regression analyses indicated that DSE and PC were modest predictors of support staff stress. Qualitative analysis showed participants’ belief in the importance of spirituality in their lives and its impact on the capability to manage work stress related to serving children with disabilities. The study findings are discussed in the light of related literature focusing on work stress of support staff.

Emmanuel GR and Delaney HD, An Initial Study on Spiritual Development and the Role of Devotional Activities and Social Support,

Fisher, K., Newbold, K., & Eyles, J. (2013). Physical health in a Canadian Old Order Mennonite community. Rural and remote health, 13, 1–21.

Flores, Sandra L, Green, Mark T., Duncan, Phyllis, Carmody-Bubb, Meghan A. 2013. “The Relationship between Spirituality and Emotional Intelligence.” The International Journal of Religion and Spirituality in Society 3 (2): 93–106. In this study, 159 leaders completed the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory, the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale and the Spiritual Well-Being Scale. An Exploratory Factor Analysis using the Principal Components method with Varimax rotation was conducted on all of the subscales of the three instruments and produced a 5-factor solution. Components of Emotional Intelligence loaded on three separate components, the two subscales from the Spiritual Well- Being Scale loaded on a separate component and the total score from the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale loaded on a separate scale. This finding lent support that the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory was measuring something different than spirituality. Consequently, the two spirituality instruments were used to predict emotional intelligence. Among the findings were that leader age and leader Daily Spiritual Experiences predicted overall leader Emotional Intelligence.

Frick, E., Büssing, A., Baumann, K., Weig, W., & Jacobs, C. (2015). Do Self-efficacy Expectation and Spirituality Provide a Buffer Against Stress-Associated Impairment of Health? A Comprehensive Analysis of the German Pastoral Ministry Study. Journal of Religion and Health. We aimed to analyse stress perception, psychosomatic health and life satisfaction in pastoral professionals, paying particular attention to their individual and shared resources. Enrolling 8574 German pastoral professionals (48 % priests, 22 % parish expert workers, 18 % pastoral assistants, 12 % deacons), we found that pastoral professionals’ stress perception is associated with psychosomatic health impairment. General self-efficacy was a beneficial resource to protect against stress perceptions, while perception of the transcendent ( measured using the DSES) had a further positive influence for stress-related impairment of health. External stressors (i.e. team size, duration of work per week and size of pastoral unit) were only of marginal independent relevance.

Freeze, T. A., & DiTommaso, E. (2015). Attachment to God and church family: Predictors of spiritual and psychological well-being. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 34(1), 60–72.   DSES was the measure of Spiritual Wellbeing in this study.

Gleichgerrcht, E., & Young, L. (2013). Low Levels of Empathic Concern Predict Utilitarian Moral Judgment. PloS one, (1126). DSES was used in this study as their measure of Religiosity.

George, L. S., and Park, C. L. (2013) Are meaning and purpose distinct? An examination of correlates and predictors, J. Posit. Psychol. 1–11.   Abstract: In Cancer patients spirituality as measured using the DSES at time one, predicted higher sense of meaning at time two and also greater post-traumatic growth. Existing empirical literature has typically treated meaning and purpose as identical. Based on previous theoretical propositions of these two constructs as distinct, we hypothesized that meaning (defined as a sense of comprehension and significance in life) and purpose (defined as a sense of goals, aims, and direction in life) would have different predictors and correlates. We utilized a longitudinal design and collected data from 167 cancer survivors at two time points one year apart. Although meaning and purpose were strongly correlated, they had different predictors and correlates. Regression analyses showed Time 2 meaning was predicted by Time 1 spirituality [measured by the DSES], whereas Time 2 purpose was predicted by Time 1 social support. At Time 2, meaning was positively correlated with posttraumatic growth and negatively with posttraumatic depreciation, whereas purpose was negatively correlated with intrusive thoughts pertaining to cancer. Implications of an understanding of meaning and purpose as distinct constructs are discussed.

Green MT, Duncan P, and Kodatt SA, “The Relationship between Follower Ratings of Leadership and the Leaders’ Spirituality,” Journal of Spirituality, Leadership and Management 5, no. 1 (2011): 46–57.   This study analyzed the relationships between leaders’ spirituality and how followers, peers, and supervisors perceived those leaders’ leadership styles. One hundred and twenty-seven participants in executive leadership training and graduate programs in leadership provided an evaluation packet to two colleagues, two subordinates and a supervisor using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. The participants in turn completed three instruments on themselves: the Religious Orientation Scale, the Spiritual Well-Being Scale and the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale. All scores were completed before the onset of the leadership training. The results of a multiple regression analysis found that the higher the leaders’ existential spiritual well-being and extrinsic religious orientation the more the followers, peers and supervisors rated the leaders as active, transformational leaders. The higher the leaders’ daily spiritual experience score, the less the followers, peers and supervisors rated the leaders as passive-avoidant leaders.

Greeson, J. M., Smoski, M. J., Suarez, E. C., Brantley, J. G., Ekblad, A. G., Lynch, T. R., & Wolever, R. Q. (2015). Decreased Symptoms of Depression After Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction: Potential Moderating Effects of Religiosity, Spirituality, Trait Mindfulness, Sex, and Age. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. JOUR. Measured spirituality with DSES

Greenfield, E. A., Vaillant, G. E., & Marks, N. F. (2009). Spiritual Perceptions Have Independent Linkages with Diverse Dimensions of Psychological Well-Being, Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 50, 196–212. Results suggest that daily spiritual experiences and formal religious participation are linked in separate and non-equal ways with psychological well-being.

Gupta, Priya S, and Gowri Anandarajah. 2014. “The Role of Spirituality in Diabetes Self-Management in an Urban, Underserved Population: A Qualitative Exploratory Study.” Rhode Island Medical Journal 97 (3) (January): 31–5.

Hardy, Sam A.; Zhang, Zhiyong; Skalski, Jonathan E.; Melling, Brent S.; Brinton, Chauncy T.Daily Religious Involvement, Spirituality, and Moral Emotions. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, Aug 18 , 2014, No Pagination Specified. doi: 10.1037/a0037293 This study examined relations among intraindividual variability in daily religious activities, daily spiritual experiences, and daily moral emotions (empathy, gratitude, and forgiveness). We hypothesized that spiritual experiences would mediate relations between religious activities and moral emotions, the quality of religious activities would moderate links to spiritual experiences, and the quality of spiritual experiences would moderate links to moral emotions. The sample included 139 individuals ages 18–69 who completed daily online surveys for up to 50 days. Participants completed multiple daily items reporting their religious activities, spiritual experiences, and moral emotions. Multilevel regression analyses found that daily religious activities were linked to daily moral emotions by way of daily spiritual experiences. Furthermore, the quality of the daily religious activities and spiritual experiences moderated links in the mediation model. Thus, we found evidence of mediating and moderating processes in associations between religious activities, spiritual experiences, and moral emotions on a daily basis.  

Harvey, S. S., Cheston, S. E., Greer, J. M., & Gillespie, C. K. 2006. “Further Exploration of the Vedic Personality Inventory: Validity, Reliability and Generalizability.” Psychological Reports 98 (1): 261–273.  The purpose of this study was to explore the validity, reliability, and generalizability of the Vedic Personality Inventory which consists of constructs derived from the Vedic literature of India. Analysis yielded statistically significant correlations for scores on the Vedic Personality Inventory and on the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale and the Brief Symptom Inventory, each of which measures domains of interest addressed by the first inventory.We found positive correlation between ‘‘goodness’’ (sattva) and scores on Daily Spiritual Experience Scale (DSES) and negative correlation between ‘‘ignorance’’(tamas) and DSES.

Ho, R., Sing, C. , Au-Yeung, Fong. S. W., Law, K. Y., LF, L., & SM, Ng. (2015). Underlying Spirituality and Mental Health: the role of burnout. Journal Of Occupational Health. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of burnout on the relationship between spirituality and mental health among healthcare workers in Hong Kong. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design, 312 healthcare workers (mean age=38.6, SD=9.9; 77.7% females) in a mental rehabilitation institution completed a self-administered questionnaire on anxiety, depression, burnout, and daily spiritual experiences. Multivariate regressions were used to test the effects of burnout on the relationships between daily spiritual experiences and anxiety and depression. RESULTS: After adjusting for age, education level, marital status, and staff ranking, higher levels of daily spiritual experience were associated with lower levels of burnout (β=-0.22, p<0.01), depression (β=-0.68, p<0.01), and anxiety (β=-0.05, p<0.01). Burnout was found to have a significant partial mediating effect on the relationship between daily spiritual experiences and depression (z=-2.99, p<0.01), accounting for 37.8% of the variation in depression. Burnout also completely mediated the relationship between daily spiritual experiences and anxiety (z=-3.06, p<0.01), accounting for 73.9% of the variation in anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested that the association between spirituality and mental health is influenced by the level of burnout, thereby supporting the role of burnout as a potential mediator. Moreover, day-to-day spiritual practice was found to be potentially protective against burnout and mental health problems. Future interventions could incorporate spirituality training to reduce burnout so as to improve the well-being of healthcare workers.(J Occup Health 2016; 58: 66-71).

Howell, Kathryn H., and Laura E. Miller-Graff. 2014. “Protective Factors Associated with Resilient Functioning in Young Adulthood after Childhood Exposure to Violence.” Child Abuse & Neglect (October). doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2014.10.010. Children may be subjected to many forms of violence and a significant number will experience multiple victimizations. These children are at high risk for developing psychological and emotional difficulties that may last into adulthood. Despite the increased risk for psychopathology, a substantial percentage of young adults exhibit resilient functioning following a history of childhood violence. This study examines the role of social support, spirituality [measured using the DSES], and emotional intelligence in promoting resilience during emerging adulthood. Participants included 321 young adult American college students, age 18–24, who experienced childhood violence, including community violence, interpersonal aggression, child maltreatment, peer/sibling victimization, and/or sexual assault. Findings revealed that this sample was highly victimized, with an average of 9 violent experiences reported during childhood. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that after controlling for exposure to childhood victimization, other potentially traumatic events, and current depression and anxiety symptoms, higher resilience during emerging adulthood was associated with greater spirituality [more frequent Daily Spiritual Experiences], greater emotional intelligence, and support from friends (but not from family). Findings suggest that the potency of protective factors outweighs that of adversity and psychopathology when predicting resilient functioning. By identifying variables that can enhance resilience, this study offers unique insight into how functioning may be improved by both individual and environmental factors.

Johnstone, B., McCormack, G., Yoon, D., & Smith, M. (2011). Convergent/Divergent Validity of the Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness/Spirituality: Empirical Support for Emotional Connectedness as a Spiritual Construct. Journal of Religion and Health, 1-13.

Kagimu, M., Kaye, S., Ainomugisha, D., Lutalo, I., Walakira, Y., Guwatudde, D., & Rwabukwali, C. (2012). Evidence-based monitoring and evaluation of the faith-based approach to HIV prevention among Christian and Muslim youth in Wakiso district in Uganda. African health sciences, 12(2), 119–28.

Kapuscinski, A. N., & Masters, K. S. (2010). The current status of measures of spirituality: A critical review of scale development. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 2(4), 191–205. doi:10.1037/a00204 Review of measures – ranks the DSES very highly.

Kelley, B., & Miller, L. (2007). Life satisfaction and spirituality in adolescents. Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, 232–261. The association between life satisfaction and dimensions of religiosity/spirituality was explored in an ethnically and denominationally diverse sample of 615 adolescents using the Satisfaction with Life Scale and the Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness/ Spirituality (BMMRS). Results indicate that most dimensions of religiosity and spirituality are associated with life satisfaction, but that Daily Spiritual Experiences accounts for the largest amount of variance in the models, and attenuates the relationship of other dimensions with life satisfaction when entered into simultaneous regressions. Dimensions of the BMMRS were more predictive than single-item measures of religious service attendance, frequency of prayer, or degree of religiousness/spirituality.

Khademi, Mazlumeh, and Dariush Ghasemian. 2014. “The Relationship of Psychological Resilience and Spiritual Experiences with Psychological Well-Being among Employees” 2 (3): 105–110. ABSTRACT :The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship of psychological resilience and spiritual experiences with psychological well-being among employees of Iranian National Tax Administration (INTA). The participants were all employees of Tax Administration, Sari (Iran). Based on Krejcie and Morgan table, a number of 127 respondents were selected using convenience sampling. The participants were asked to complete Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Underwood and Teresi Daily Spiritual Experience Scale (DSES) and Ryff’s Psychological Well-being Scale. Results of data analysis showed a significant positive correlation of psychological resilience (r=0.35) and spiritual experiences (r=0.26) with psychological well-being. Results of regression analysis also indicated that both variables could significantly predict psychological well-being.

Khanna, Surbhi; Greyson, Bruce Daily Spiritual Experiences Before and After Near-Death Experiences. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, Aug 18 , 2014, No Pagination Specified. doi: 10.1037/a0037258 People who have near-death experiences (NDEs) often report a subsequently increased sense of spirituality and a connection with their inner self and the world around them. In this study, we examined daily spiritual experiences, using Underwood and Teresi’s (2002) Daily Spiritual Experience Scale, among 229 persons who had come close to death. Frequency of daily spiritual experiences before the close brush with death did not differentiate participants who had NDEs (n = 204) from those who did not (n = 25). However, participants who described having had NDEs reported more daily spiritual experiences after their brush with death than those who did not, and frequency of daily spiritual experiences after the brush with death was positively correlated with depth of NDE. We discussed the implications of these findings in light of other reported aftereffects of NDEs and of daily spiritual experiences among other populations.  

Kim, S.-H., Martin, B. J., & Nolty, A. T. (2015). The Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance of the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 1–28. JOUR. AbstractThe current study has two main goals: (a) to identify a factor structure of the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale on a large archival data, collected from 1,325 adults in the US (709 women and 616 men) by the U.S. General Social Survey in 2004 and (b) to examine the measurement invariance of the 16 DSES items between women and men in the same data to see whether any of the items are favoring or biased toward either women or men. The one-factor confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) model fit our data better than the two-factor CFA models because of high correlations between the two factors (r > .90). The fit of the one-factor CFA to our sample data was improved when we specified seven correlated residuals suggested by overlapping item content and large modification indices. The ensuing measurement invariance testing of the one-factor CFA model with seven correlated residuals supported full measurement invariance of factor loadings, thresholds, and residual variances, as well as factor variances between the women and the men. Yet, the factor mean for the women was .841 units (Cohen’s d = .496) higher than it was for the men, indicating that higher levels of daily spiritual experiences for women reported in gender comparison studies in the US are not likely to be an artifact of bias in the questionnaire.

Koenig, H. G., Pearce, M. J., Nelson, B., Shaw, S. F., Robins, C. J., Daher, N. S., … King, M. B. (2015). Religious vs. Conventional Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Major Depression in Persons With Chronic Medical Illness. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 203(4), 243–251.

Kopacz , Marek S , Joseph M. Currier, Kent D. Drescher, Wilfred R. Pigeon. 2015. “Suicidal Behavior and Spiritual Functioning in a Sample of Veterans Diagnosed with PTSD.” Journal of Injury and Violence Research (October). doi:10.5249/jivr.v8i1.728. Daily spiritual experiences were inversely associated with suicidal thoughts.

Koszycki, D., Raab, K., and Bradwejn, J. (2010) A Multifaith Spiritually Based Intervention for Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Pilot Randomized Trial Journal of Clinical Psychology,66,(4) 430–441.   Spiritual intervention used DSES as one outcome variable in addition to Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and DSES scores shows increased frequency over time.  This pilot trial evaluated the efficacy of a multifaith spiritually based intervention (SBI) for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for GAD of at least moderate severity were randomized to either 12 sessions of the SBI (n511) delivered by a spiritual care counselor or 12 sessions of psychologist-administered cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT; n511). Outcome measures were completed at baseline, post-treatment, and 3-month and 6-month follow-ups. Primary efficacy measures included the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Data analysis was performed on the intent-to-treat sample using the Last Observation Carried Forward method. Eighteen patients (82%) completed the study. The SBI produced robust and clinically significant reductions from baseline in psychic and somatic symptoms of GAD and was comparable in efficacy to CBT. A reduction in depressive symptoms and improvement in social adjustment was also observed. Treatment response occurred in 63.6% of SBI-treated and 72.3% of CBT-treated patients. Gains were maintained at 3-month and 6-month follow-ups. These preliminary findings are encouraging and suggest that a multifaith SBI may be an effective treatment option for GAD. Further randomized controlled trials are needed to establish the efficacy of this intervention.

Kelley, B. S., & Miller, L. (2007). Life Satisfaction and Spirituality in Adolescents. Research in the social scientific study of religion, 232–261.    The association between life satisfaction and dimensions of religiosity/spirituality was explored in an ethnically and denominationally diverse sample of 615 adolescents using the Satisfaction with Life Scale and the Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness/ Spirituality (BMMRS). Results indicate that most dimensions of religiosity and spirituality are associated with life satisfaction, but that Daily Spiritual Experiences accounts for the largest amount of variance in the models, and attenuates the relationship of other dimensions with life satisfaction when entered into simultaneous regressions. Dimensions of the BMMRS were more predictive than single-item measures of religious service attendance, frequency of prayer, or degree of religiousness/spirituality, religious service attendance, frequency of prayer, or degree of religiousness/spirituality.

Kim, S., Miles-Mason, Kim, E., Yuk;, C., & Esquivel, G. B. (2012). DSES and life satisfaction Korean adolescents. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, Online first December 31.  The purpose of this paper was to investigate how multiple dimensions of religiosity/spirituality are related to life satisfaction in Korean American adolescents. The participants were 174 Korean American adolescents (91 boys, 83 girls) attending Korean Catholic churches in the Northeast Coast of the United States. The adolescents completed the Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness/Spirituality and the Brief Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses were run to examine the contribution of eight dimensions of religiosity/spirituality (six positive and two negative aspects) to the prediction of life satisfaction, controlling for demographic variables. The results showed that when analyzed individually, all the positive aspects of R/S except the frequency of attending organizational religious activities were significant in predicting life satisfaction, while the negative aspects of R/S were insignificant. Also, when analyzed simultaneously, the three R/S dimensions of Daily Spiritual Experiences, Forgiveness, and Congregational Support remained significant and explained 33.6% of the variance in life satisfaction. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

Kimura, Miako, Acacia Lima de Oliveira, Lina Mishima, and Lynn G Underwood. “Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Underwood’s Daily Spiritual Experience Scale-Brazilian Version.” Revista Da Escola de Enfermagem – USP 46 (2012): 99–106.

Lee, Matthew T., Paige S. Veta, Byron R. Johnson, and Maria E. Pagano. 2014. “Daily Spiritual Experiences and Adolescent Treatment Response.” Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 32 (2-3) (June 30): 271–298.  The purpose of this study is to explore changes in belief orientation during treatment and the impact of increased daily spiritual experiences (DSE) on adolescent treatment response. One-hundred ninety-five adolescents court-referred to a 2-month residential treatment program were assessed at intake and discharge. Forty percent of youth who entered treatment as agnostic or atheist identified themselves as spiritual or religious at discharge. Increased DSE was associated with greater likelihood of abstinence, increased prosocial behaviors, and reduced narcissistic behaviors. Results indicate a shift in DSE that improves youth self-care and care for others that may inform intervention approaches for adolescents with addiction.

Lee, M. T., Pagano, M. E., & Johnson, B. R. (2016). Love and Service in Adolescent Addiction Recovery. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 34(2), 197–222. This article is one of the first to examine the relationships among a specific combination of “spiritual virtues” (helping others and the experience of divine love) and outcomes related to criminal involvement, sobriety, and character development among adolescents. One hundred ninety-five adolescents with substance dependency court-referred to residential treatment were assessed at intake, discharge, and 6 months posttreatment. Higher service to others predicted reduced recidivism, reduced relapse, and greater character development. Experiencing divine love [using items from the DSES] enhanced the effect of service on recidivism. Greater attention to spiritual virtues might improve treatment for youth involved with alcohol, drugs, and certain forms of crime.

Liwarti L, (2013) Hubungan pengalaman spiritual dengan psychological well being pada penghuni lembaga pemasyarakatan, Jurnal Sains dan Praktik Psikologi, Magister Psikologi UMM, ISSN: 2303-2936 Volume I (1), 77 – 88

Lo, G., Chen, J., Wasser, T., Portenoy, R., & Dhingra, L. (2015). Initial Validation of the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale in Chinese Immigrants with Cancer Pain. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. Volume: 51, Issue: 2, Publisher: Elsevier Inc., Pages: 284-291   Evaluating religious/spiritual influences in the growing Chinese-American population may inform the development of culturally relevant palliative care interventions. Objectives We assessed the psychometric properties and acceptability of the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale-Chinese (DSES-C) in Chinese Americans with cancer-related pain. Methods The translated 16-item DSES-C was administered as part of a symptom intervention for Chinese-American cancer patients. Patients were recruited from four New York community oncology practices. Results Of 321 patients, 78.7% were born in Mainland China, 79.1% spoke Cantonese, and 70.2% endorsed a religious affiliation (Ancestor worship, 31.7%; Chinese God worship, 29.8%; Buddhism, 17.1%; Christianity, 14.0%). The DSES-C (mean total score = 43.6, SD = 19.3) demonstrated high reliability (alpha = 0.94). Exploratory factor analysis suggested a one-factor solution, with significant loadings (>0.40) across items except Item 14 (“Accept others”). Construct validity was suggested by a positive association between DSES-C scores and having a religious affiliation (P < 0.05). Conclusion In Chinese Americans with cancer pain, the DSES-C demonstrated acceptable psychometrics.

Luhrmann, T. (2013). Making God real and making God good: Some mechanisms through which prayer may contribute to healing. Transcultural Psychiatry.

Lynch, C. P., Hernandez-Tejada, M. Strom, J. L., & Egede, L. E. (2012). Association between spirituality and depression in adults with type 2 diabetes. The Diabetes educator, 38(3), 427–35. doi:10.1177/0145721712440335 Abstract: The purpose of the study was to examine the association between spirituality and depression among patients with type 2 diabetes. This study included 201 adult participants with diabetes from an indigent clinic of an academic medical center. Participants completed validated surveys on spirituality and depression. The Daily Spiritual Experience (DSE) Scale measured a person’s perception of the transcendent (God, the divine) in daily life. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale assessed depression. Linear regression analyses examined the association of spirituality as the predictor with depression as the outcome, adjusted for confounding variables. Results: Greater spirituality was reported among females, non-Hispanic blacks, those with lower educational levels, and those with lower income. The unadjusted regression model showed greater spirituality was associated with less depression. This association was mildly diminished but still significant in the final adjusted model. Depression scores also increased (greater depression risk) with females and those who were unemployed but decreased with older age and non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of depression symptoms may be facilitated by incorporating the spiritual values and beliefs of patients with diabetes. Therefore, faith-based diabetes education is likely to improve self-care behaviors and glycemic control.

Lyons, G. C. B., Deane, F. P., Caputi, P., & Kelly, P. J. (2011). Spirituality and the treatment of substance use disorders: An exploration of forgiveness, resentment and purpose in life. Addiction Research & Theory, 19(5), 459-469. doi:10.3109/16066359.2011.555022

Maisel, N.C, Rauer, Amy J, Marshall, G.N, and Karney, B.R. (2011). Predicting Support From an Intimate Partner After a Traumatic Injury1. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 41(8), 2044-2075.

Mahboubi, Mohammad, and Fariba Ghahramani. 2014. “Relationship between Daily Spiritual Experiences and Fear of Death in Hemodialysis Patients.” Journal of Biology and Today’s World 3 (1): 5–7. Using the DSES as a measure of spirituality the authors found that higher frequency of DSE’s predicted less fear of death in Hemodialysis Patients in Iran.

Marquine, María J, Yadira Maldonado, Zvinka Zlatar, Raeanne C Moore, Averria Sirkin Martin, Barton W Palmer, and Dilip V Jeste. 2014. “Differences in Life Satisfaction among Older Community-Dwelling Hispanics and Non-Hispanic Whites.” Aging & Mental Health (November 17): 1–11. doi:10.1080/13607863.2014.971706. We examined differences in life satisfaction between demographically matched groups of older Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites, and sought to identify specific factors associated with these differences.Hispanics reported greater life satisfaction than non-Hispanic Whites (p < 0.001). Ethnic groups were comparable on most postulated correlates of life satisfaction, except that Hispanics had lower levels of cognitive performance, and higher levels of daily spiritual experiences [DSES], private religious practices and compassion (ps < 0.001). Among these factors, spiritual experiences [DSES], religious practices, and compassion were significantly associated with life satisfaction in the overall sample. Multivariable analyses testing the influence of these three factors on the association between ethnicity and life satisfaction showed that higher spirituality among Hispanics accounted for ethnic differences in life satisfaction.Conclusion: English-speaking Hispanics aged 50 and older appeared to be more satisfied with their lives than their non-Hispanic White counterparts, and these differences were primarily driven by higher spirituality among Hispanics. Future studies should examine positive mental health among various Hispanic subgroups, including Spanish speakers, as an important step toward development of culturally sensitive prevention and intervention programs aimed at promoting positive mental health.

Matamoros, F. A. S., Pedraza, R. S., and Antequera, C. I. I. (2013) Adaptación transcultural de la escala Daily Spiritual Experience Scale para su uso en Colombia, Rev. Colomb. Cancerol. 17, 149–157.  Objective To make a cross-cultural adaptation of the Daily Spiritual Experience Scale for its use in Colombia. Method Permission was obtained to use the scale and the stages of the EORTC organization were followed: direct and independent translations of the Scale by two native Colombian Spanish speaking translator. A preliminary version was obtained from these two versions, followed by independent back-translations of the Scale by two native English speaking translators, a review of the process by the author of the Scale, as well as including suggestions, and finally the performing of a pilot test. Results The direct translations were similar as regards the instructions, response options, and 11 of the 16 items of the Scale. Four of the items required a consensus meeting to choose the best translation option. The back-translations were similar between themselves and with the original version of the Scale. The author suggested some more suitable terms in 6 items after clarifying the intention of the item. These suggestions were included in the preliminary version of the Scale. In the pilot test, performed with cancer patients, no difficulties in comprehension were observed, nor confusion or discomfort. No new paraphrasing was suggested.

Mayoral, E. G., Underwood, L. G., Laca, F. A. & Mejía, J. C. (2013). Validation of the Spanish version of Underwood’s Daily Spiritual Experience Scale in Mexico. International Journal of Hispanic Psychology, 6(2), 191-202. Exploratory Factor Analysis revealed that the translation reflected the original instrument.

McGee, M. D., and Torosian, J. (2006) Integrating spiritual assessment into a psychiatric inpatient unit., Psychiatry (Edgmont). 3, 60–4. Psychiatry (Edgmont). 2006 December; 3(12): 60–64.  Uses the DSES as one of the main domains of assessment.

Meng, Wong Chin, and Denise Dillon. 2014. “Meaning Making Model: Inner Purpose , Goals , and Religiosity / Spirituality Partially Predict Acceptance Strategies and Volunteerism Behaviours” International Journal of Existential Psychology and Psychotherapy 5 (1): 105–123. The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of global meaning on volunteerism behaviours and on acceptance strategies in response to unchangeable life events. The study is based on the meaning making model proposed by Park (2010). A total of 348 participants completed the survey; ages ranging from 18 to more than 70 years. Vignettes were used as an approach to evaluate the meaning-making model. The present study was a correlational survey design. The predictor variables were global meaning as measured by purpose in life, goals, and R/S experiences [measured by DSES], beliefs and practices. The dependent variables were volunteerism behaviours and acceptance style of responses to unchangeable life situations depicted in vignettes. The questionnaire was presented as an online survey. The results supported most of the hypotheses, confirming the relevance of Park’s meaning making model and the validity of the proposed measures. The results suggest that from a foundation of strong purpose in life, intrinsic goals, and religiosity/spirituality [DSES], one is in a better position to grow from negative life events. Together with volunteerism that encourages one to have an outward looking perspective in life, values in oneself could be developed and reinforced, further strengthening one’s abilities to face negative events in life.

Newmeyer, Mark, Benjamin Keyes, Sonji Gregory, and Kamala Palmer. 2014. “The Mother Teresa Effect: The Modulation of Spirituality in Using The CISM Model with Mental Health Service Providers.” 16 (13). Abstract: Mental health service providers are at risk of experiencing compassion fatigue, burnout, and vicarious traumatization as a result of working in difficult contexts or when working with individuals who have experienced trauma. Numerous studies have examined the mitigating factors in professional caregivers’ stress and related prevention strategies thought to be associated with professional self-care. This retrospective study examined the impact of debriefing strategies referred to as Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) and spirituality in 22 mental health service providers working in a stressful, cross-cultural context. To the surprise of the researchers, spirituality [measured using the DSES] may not only serve as a protective factor in moderating compassion fatigue, but also increases compassion satisfaction among professional caregivers. Thus, the “Mother Teresa Effect”. “The significance of spirituality as measured by the DSES appears to play a critical role in not only stress reduction, but in an overall positive trajectory in enhancing psychological sense of well-being.”

Ng, Siu-man. “Is Brief Daily Body–mind–spirit Practice Desirable for Staff Who Provide Services for Elderly People? Two Pilot Studies with Care and Professional Workers.” Asia Pacific Journal of Social Work and Development. May (April 25, 2014): 1–11. A symptoms-focused approach had only limited short-term effects in addressing burnout. A new trend is toward a positive approach in fostering well-being in the workplace. The current study piloted a daily body–mind–spirit practice programme which provided a 15-minute small-group meeting with staff who provide services for elderly people, towards the end of every workday for one month at two study sites. Repeated measures of burnout, daily spiritual experience (DSE) and engagement were taken at pre-intervention, post-intervention (the intervention lasted for one month) and one month after intervention. The two groups, home help workers and professional staff respectively, showed different patterns in burnout reduction and increase of DSE.

Ng, E.C.W. & Fisher, A.T. Protestant Spirituality and Well-Being of People in Hong Kong: The Mediating Role of Sense of Community, Applied Research Quality Life (2015). doi:10.1007/s11482-015-9435-6

Ng, T. (2014). An exploratory study of spirituality and happiness of parents living in the “ City of Sadness .” Journal for Spirituality and Transcendental Psychology, 1–15. Tin Shui Wai is a new town in the north-western New Territories of Hong Kong. It has been known as the ‘City of Sadness’ after the occurrence of a multitude of family tragedies involving child abuse and homicide. The tragedies aroused public concern over the needs of families in Tin Shui Wai. The paper explores the relationship between daily spiritual experience and happiness of parents (n=118) living in the ‘City of Sadness’. The results of the research suggested that more daily spiritual experience could predict higher level of happiness among parents.

Park, Crystal L., Carolyn M. Aldwin, Soyoung Choun, Login George, Damodhar P. Suresh, and Deborah Bliss. 2015. “Spiritual Peace Predicts 5-Year Mortality in Congestive Heart Failure Patients.” (October) Health Psychology doi:10.1037/hea0000271.  DSES item “I feel deep inner peace or harmony” – many times a day to never. More frequent experience predicts mortality in multivariate analysis. Although both religion and spirituality were associated with better health behaviors at baseline in bivariate analyses, a proportional hazard model showed that only spirituality (deep inner peace or harmony DSES question ) was significantly associated with reduced mortality risk ( by 20%) controlling for demographics, health status, and health behaviors. Experiencing spiritual peace, along with adherence to a healthy lifestyle, were better predictors of mortality risk in this sample of CHF patients than were physical health indicators, depression, or religious attendance.

Park, Crystal L., Haikel Lim, Max Newlon, D. P. Suresh, and Deborah E. Bliss. 2014. “Dimensions of Religiousness and Spirituality as Predictors of Well-Being in Advanced Chronic Heart Failure Patients.” Journal of Religion and Health 53: 579–590. doi:10.1007/s10943-013-9714-1. We examined relationships between seven dimensions of religion/spirituality (RS) (forgiveness, daily spiritual experiences, belief in afterlife, religious identity, religious support, public practices, and positive RS coping) and three dimensions of well-being (physical, mental, and existential) in a sample of 111 patients with advanced chronic heart failure. Participants completed questionnaires at baseline and 3 months later. RS dimensions were differentially related to well-being.  In particular, daily spiritual experiences were linked with higher existential well-being and predicted less subsequent spiritual strain. These results are consistent with the view that in advanced disease, RS may not affect physical well-being but may have potent influences on other aspects of well-being, particularly existential aspects.

Park, C. L., Sacco, S. J., & Edmondson, D. (2012). Expanding coping goodness-of-fit: religious coping, health locus of control, and depressed affect in heart failure patients. Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 25(2), 137–153. doi:10.1080/10615806.2011.586030  This study examined the associations of daily spiritual experiences (DSE) and social support with depression to find viable coping resources and enhance the quality of life among elderly Korean immigrants. The sample consisted of 200 elderly Korean immigrants who were aged 65 or older (mean age = 72.5, range = 65–89) living in the New York City Metropolitan area. This study supports the importance of DSE and social support in the life of elderly Korean immigrants as a way to alleviate depression. Mental health professionals may consider facilitating social network when elderly Korean immigrants suffer from depression.

Pawar, Badrinarayan Shankar. 2013. “Leadership Spiritual Behaviors Toward Subordinates: An Empirical Examination of the Effects of a Leader’s Individual Spirituality and Organizational Spirituality.” Journal of Business Ethics 122 (3) (June 11): 439–452. This paper examined the relationship of two variables –a leader’s individual spirituality [measured using the DSES] and organizational spirituality- with the outcome variable of the leader’s spiritual behaviors toward subordinates.   A leader’s individual spirituality accounted for statistically significant variance in leadership spiritual behaviors toward subordinates but organizational spirituality did not.

Piryaei, S., & Zare, R. (2013). Workplace Spirituality and Positive Work Attitudes: The Moderating role of Individual Spirituality, (April), 91–97.  (Iran) The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between workplace spirituality aspects and two positive work attitudes (job satisfaction and organizational commitment) considering the moderating role of individual spirituality. Workplace Spirituality scale (Milliman et. al, 1993), daily spiritual experiences scale, DSES (Underwood, 2006), Job in General Scale (JIGS, Ironson, Smith, Brannick, Gibson, & Paul, 1989) and affective commitment scale (Meyer and Allen,1990) were administered to 300 full-time employees working in an industrial company in Iran that were selected by stratified random sampling method. Of this sample 81.81% were men with an average age of 41 years. The data were analyzed applying hierarchical regression analysis. Results indicated that workplace spirituality aspects (meaning in work, community at work and positive organizational purpose) were positively related to job satisfaction and organizational commitment and employee’s individual spirituality [measured with the DSES] can moderate the number of these associations.

Piazza, J. (2012) “If You Love Me Keep My Commandments”: Religiosity Increases Preference for Rule-Based Moral Arguments, Int. J. Psychol. Relig. 22, 285–302. (DSES was used in this study and in contrast to some other religiosity variables, did not predict preference for rule-based moral arguments)

Pope, H., Watkins, K. W., McKeown, R. E., Friedman, D. B., Simmons, D. B., & Miller, M. C. (2013). Church-Based Health Promotion Program Impact on Ethnically Diverse Older Adults’ Social Support, Religiosity, and Spirituality. Journal of Religion, Spirituality & Aging, 25(3), 238–257. A church-based health promotion program of the United Methodist Church was implemented to address the holistic health of adults 50 years and older (n = 142). African American congregation members (n = 65) were paired with white congregation members (n = 77) for a total of 12 groups. Over a year, biracial groups participated in weekly two-hour meetings. A one-group pretest-posttest design was used to determine impacts on participants’ religiosity, spirituality [DSES], and social support; and if impacts varied by race. At follow-up, program components were assessed. Tangible social support overall improved, and participants experienced meaningful socialization, spiritual opportunities, and improved perceptions of other race groups.

Rahman, A., Rahim, A., Shazeer, A., Thaheer, M., Shabudin, A., Wahab, A., & Hashim, N. A. (2014). Exploring the Spillover Effect of Spirituality and Workplace Deviant Behaviour. International Journal of Liberal Arts and Social Science, 2(9), 53–62.

Rahmawati, S. W. (2013). Role of Religiousness / Spirituality in Resilience of Fisheries College Cadets. Journal of Educational, Health and Community Psychology 2013, Vol. 3, No. 1., 3(1). This research is conducted in Indonesia to see the influence of religiousness/spirituality on resilience occuring among college students. The results showed that the following dimensions are related to the increasing resilience of a person: daily spiritual experiences, beliefs/values, willingness to forgive, and the worship of religious activities as well as evaluating a person’s level of religiousness.

Reid-Arndt, S., Smith, M., Yoon, D. P., & Johnstone, B. (2011). Gender Differences in Spiritual Experiences, Religious Practices, and Congregational Support for Individuals with Significant Health Conditions. Journal of Religion, Disability & Health, 15(2), 175–196. doi:10.1080/15228967.2011.566792  This study sought to identify gender differences among medical patients for their spiritual/religious beliefs/practices and their associations with health. Patients (N = 168) completed the Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness/Spirituality (BMMRS), and SF-36 general health perception (GHP) and general mental health (GMH) scales. No gender differences were found in endorsement of spiritual experiences, religious practices, or congregational support. For men, religious/spiritual coping significantly correlated with GHP and GMH, and religious support significantly correlated with GMH. For women, measures of spiritual experiences, religious practices, and congregational support were significantly correlated with GMH, but no significant correlations with GHP were noted. Regression analyses revealed that the interaction between gender and BMMRS was a significant predictor for GMH and GHP. Followup analyses suggested that for women, GMH was associated with religious/spiritual coping, religious support, daily spiritual experiences, forgiveness, and organizational religion. In contrast, GHP was only significantly predicted by religious support and only for men. Gender differences in relationships between spirituality, beliefs/practices and health may exist for those with chronic disease.

Reutter, Kirby K. Bigatti, Silvia M. (2014) Religiosity and Spirituality as Resiliency Resources: Moderation, Mediation, or Moderated Mediation? J. Sci. Study Relig. 53, 56–72. A growing body of literature indicates a modestly positive association between religiosity and spirituality as predictors of psychological health (anxiety and depression), suggesting they serve as personal resiliency factors. The purpose of this study was to expand our understanding of the relationships among these constructs. Using Lazarus’s Transactional Model of Stress as a theoretical framework, we examined: (a) the extent to which spirituality and religiosity mediated and/or moderated the association between perceived stress and psychological health and (b) whether there was a moderated (religiosity) mediation (spirituality) between stress and health. The Perceived Stress Scale, Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale, Religious Commitment Inventory, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were administered to measure the following constructs: stress, spirituality, religiosity, and psychological health. This study utilized a nonexperimental, quantitative, correlational, cross-sectional, moderated-mediation design, and included a convenience sample of 331 research participants. Both spirituality [measured by the DSES] and religiosity moderated stress and health. However, only spirituality partially mediated the relationship. In addition, religiosity did not moderate the mediating effects of spirituality. Overall, this study confirmed the role of both religiosity and spirituality as effective resiliency resources.

Reutter, Kirby K. (2014) Effects of Religiosity and Spirituality on Stress, Anxiety and Depression: Mediation, Moderation or Moderated Mediation. Lambert Academic Publishing. This book describes a study that found that Daily Spiritual Experiences mediate the association between perceived stress and anxiety and depression independent of the effect of religious commitment. Both religious commitment and DSEs had moderating roles on psychological outcomes, and each can be coping resources.

Robinson, E. A. R., Krentzman, A. R., Webb, J. R., & Brower, K. J. (2011). Six-month changes in spirituality and religiousness in alcoholics predict drinking outcomes at nine months. Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs, 72(4), 660-8.  ABSTRACT. Objective: Although spiritual change is hypothesized to contribute to recovery from alcohol dependence, few studies have used prospective data to investigate this hypothesis. Prior studies have also been limited to treatment-seeking and Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) samples. This study included alcohol-dependent individuals, both in treatment and not, to investigate the effect of spiritual and religious (SR) change on subsequent drinking outcomes, independent of AA involvement. Method: Alcoholics (N = 364) were recruited for a panel study from two abstinence-based treatment centers, a moderation drinking program, and untreated individuals from the local community. Quantitative measures of SR change between baseline and 6 months were used to predict 9-month drinking outcomes, controlling for baseline drinking and AA involvement. Results: Significant 6-month changes in 8 of 12 SR measures were found, which included private SR practices, beliefs, daily spiritual experiences, three measures of forgiveness, negative religious coping, and purpose in life. Increases in private SR practices and forgiveness of self were the strongest predictors of improvements in drinking outcomes. Changes in daily spiritual experiences, purpose in life, a general measure of forgiveness, and negative religious coping also predicted favorable drinking outcomes. Conclusions: SR change predicted good drinking outcomes in alcoholics, even when controlling for AA involvement. SR variables, broadly defined, deserve attention in fostering change even among those who do not affiliate with AA or religious institutions. Last, future research should include SR variables, particularly various types of forgiveness, given the strong effects found for forgiveness of self.

Roof, Richard A. 2014. “The Association of Individual Spirituality on Employee Engagement: The Spirit at Work.” Journal of Business Ethics June (June 26).  Empirical support was found for relationships between individual spirituality [as measured by the DSES] and engagement, vigor, and dedication but not for the engagement dimension of absorption.   The empirical support for spirituality [DSES] as a predictor of engagement, informs practical decisions for addressing workplace spirituality concerns with the potential to assist in countering the declining engagement trend. 

Rounding, K., Hart, K. E., Hibbard, S., & Carroll, M. (2011). Emotional Resilience in Young Adults Who Were Reared by Depressed Parents: The Moderating Effects of Offspring Religiosity/Spirituality. Journal of Spirituality in Mental Health, 13(4), 236-246. doi:10.1080/19349637.2011.616091 Extending previous research, the present study assessed a broad array of religiosity/spirituality (R/S) factors in order to identify specific facets that might be especially protective against inter-generational transmission of depressive symptoms. Results from 273 young adults who were reared in families characterized by high levels of parental depressive affect found that depressive symptoms in offspring were only related to one of the five dimensions of R/S examined: the frequency of daily spiritual experiences (DSE). Two facets of DSE were identified as being especially potent predictors of lesser depressive symptomology: (a) feelings of deep peace or harmony, and (b) the experience of gratitude.

Sánchez, R., Sierra, F., & Zárate, K. (2014). ¿Son la religiosidad y la espiritualidad dimensiones diferentes? Revista Colombiana de Cancerología. OBJECTIVE To establish if spirituality and religion are independent dimensions. METHOD Simultaneous measurements using two questionnaires for evaluating spirituality and religiosity (FACIT-Sp) (DSES) in a sample of 251 patients diagnosed as having cancer. Correlation analysis and multivariate techniques (factor analysis and multidimensional scaling) were used to evaluate associations between dimensions. RESULTS Correlation levels were higher in the intra-scale component, with the DSES items having the better correlation coefficients. Factor analysis suggests a multidimensional structure (4 components explaining 66% of the total variance), whereas DSES items account for the variance of only one factor. Two of the items of the DSES scale (D13 self-less caring, D14 acceptance) do not seem to fit. Multidimensional scaling suggests that items corresponding to DSES and FACIT-Sp measure independent dimensions. CONCLUSION Results suggest that these scales seem to measure independent theoretical concepts

Scherer, L. L., Allen, J. A., & Harp, E. R. (2016). Grin and bear it: An examination of volunteers’ fit with their organization, burnout and spirituality. Burnout Research, 3(1), 1–10. Uses DSES,

Shannon, D. K., Oakes, K. E., Scheers, N. J., Richardson, F. J., & Stills, A. B. (2013). Religious beliefs as moderator of exposure to violence in African American adolescents. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality.   This study examined how spiritual beliefs and experiences moderate the effect of exposure to violence in the community on psychological well-being for urban African-American adolescents. Participants consisted of 214 African-American adolescents attending an inner city parochial high school in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. In this study, the effects of exposure to violence in the community were moderated by daily spiritual experiences for satisfaction with life. Additionally, daily spiritual experiences and positive religious coping contributed incremental significant variance to satisfaction with life and positive affect over and above demographic factors and the perception of family support. The religious variables in this study did not contribute significantly to negative psychological outcomes. These overall findings suggest a significant relationship between spirituality and positive psychological outcomes for urban African-American adolescents exposed to violence in the community.

Shorey, Ryan C, Michael J Gawrysiak, Scott Anderson, and Gregory L Stuart. 2014. “Dispositional Mindfulness, Spirituality, and Substance Use in Predicting Depressive Symptoms in a Treatment-Seeking Sample.” Journal of Clinical Psychology (December 17): 1–12. Findings demonstrated that dispositional mindfulness and spirituality [measured using the DSES] were negatively associated with depressive symptoms. After controlling for age, alcohol use, and drug use, dispositional mindfulness remained negatively associated with all of the depression clusters. Spirituality remained negatively associated with the cognitive depression cluster.

Shorey, R., Elmquist, J., Anderson, S., & Stuart, G. (2015). The Relationship Between Spirituality and Aggression in a Sample of Men in Residential Substance Use Treatment. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 14(1), 1–8.

Sink, C. & Simpson, L. (2013). African-American Adolescent Spirituality: Implications for School Counseling. Religion & Education, 40(2), 189–220. doi:10.1080/15507394.2013.786627

Skarupski, K. A., Fitchett, G., Evans, D., & de Leon, C. F. M. (2013). Race differences in the association of spiritual experiences and life satisfaction in older age. Aging & mental health, Online first doi: 10.1080/13607863.2013.793285  This pattern suggests that spiritual experiences are a positive resource – distinct from worship attendance – that enable older African Americans to overcome decrements in life satisfaction and, in fact, that lower spiritual experiences may be especially harmful for older African American’s life satisfaction.

Sprung JM, Sliter MT, and Jex SM, “Spirituality as a Moderator of the Relationship between Workplace Aggression and Employee Outcomes,” Personality and Individual Differences 53, no. 7 (2012): 930–34.  Despite the number of people who engage in spiritual pursuits on a daily basis, there is a surprising lack of research investigating spirituality in the workplace. As such, this study was conducted to explore the role of spirituality in the workplace by examining relations between spirituality [as measured by the DSES] and a number of employee outcomes; additionally, we examine how spirituality might buffer the relations between workplace aggression and those outcomes. Based on a sample of 854 participants from the General Social Survey (GSS), it was found that spirituality was associated with positive outcomes except when workplace aggression was present. In the presence of workplace aggression, spiritual employees tended to be more vulnerable to negative outcomes than less spiritual employees. This diverges from past research and our expectations; potential reasons for these counterintuitive moderator effects are discussed. Though limited by some of the brief and potentially inadequate measures used in the GSS (i.e., single-item measures), this exploratory study encourages future research to fully understand the role of spirituality in the workplace.

Stein, Karen Farchaus, Colleen Keller, and Colleen Corte. 2014. “Creando Posibilidades”: A Cognitive Model of Risk Behaviors in Mexican American Women.” J Food Nutr Disor 2014, 3:3      A prevailing theory within eating disorder literature is that the process of acculturation and the strength of ethnic identity are key determinants of disordered eating and related health risk behaviors for Latinas. In this paper, we describe a longitudinal study to test the theoretical proposition that the configuration of personal identities buffers the effects of acculturation on a triad of modifiable risk behaviors (disordered eating, alcohol use and tobacco use) in college-enrolled Mexican American (MA) women. Using the self-schema model to conceptualize personal identities, we review the causal pathways linking self-schema properties to risk behaviors and describe the longitudinal design and measures [the DSES is the measure of spirituality] used to test the hypothesized relationships. We discuss the causal role of the self-concept in the development of the risk behavior patterns among young Latinas, and the association between socio-cultural factors and properties of the self-concept. We describe our longitudinal study design that enables us to examine the pattern of association among the risk behaviors, and the appropriateness of measures that operationalize the theoretical concepts in the study.

Talib, Mansor Abu, and Abbas Abdollahi. 2015. “Spirituality Moderates Hopelessness, Depression, and Suicidal Behavior among Malaysian Adolescents.” Journal of Religion and Health. doi:10.1007/s10943-015-0133-3.   1376 Malaysian adolescent students. The participants completed measures of depression, hopelessness, daily spiritual experience, and suicidal behavior. Structural equation modeling indicated that adolescent students high in hopelessness and depression, but also high in spirituality, had less suicidal behavior than others.

Taranu, O. (2011). Estudo da Relação entre Resiliência e Espiritualidade numa Amostra Portuguesa Estudo da Relação entre Resiliência e Espiritualidade numa Amostra Portuguesa.The present study evaluated whether the psychometric qualities of the Resilience Scale (Wagnild & Young, 1993) and the Daily Spiritual Experience Scale. The Resilience Scale was developed to evaluate the level of resilience and the Daily Spiritual Experience scale is intended to measure the ordinary experiences of spirituality in daily life of people. The Portuguese version of the scales was applied to a sample of 335 participants. The results indicate that the Portuguese version of the Resilience Scale seems to have poor psychometric indices pointing to the need for revision of this scale and that the Portuguese version of the Daily Spiritual Experience Scale has good psychometric indices. There was a significant positive correlation. The results show significant differences compared to age, the age of 60 have higher values of resilience and spirituality. Women compared to man show higher levels of resilience at the dimension acceptance of life. Regarding marital status, married individuals have higher values to the dimension of admiration, love and desire for closeness to God while the divorced show higher levels of overall resilience.

Ugwu, F., and Ugwu, C. (2013) Anointing Without Money: Exploring the Relationships between Materialism, Happiness and Daily Spiritual Experience in a Nigerian Sample, Int. J. Asian Soc. Sci. 3, 1196–1207.  Materialism, happiness and spiritualism seem inseparable and represent areas that have continued to dominate human life and yet have attracted limited research interests, especially in Nigeria. The present study employed the multi-stage sampling technique to investigate the relationship between materialism, happiness and daily spiritual experience among 142 participants drawn from across 3 religious groups in Makurdi, Benue state Nigeria. Consistent with our first hypothesis, and as opposed to most Western-based studies, we found that materialism is positively related with happiness. Also, the second hypothesis that proposed a significant negative relationship between materialism and daily spiritual experience was refuted. The third hypothesis which proposed a positive relationship between happiness and daily spiritual experience was confirmed. The study suggests that there is more to materialism and happiness than previous authors could see, and that is the context within which the study is carried out. The results imply that caution should be taken when interpreting some results especially those that have socio-cultural implications.

Wachholtz, A., & Rogoff, M. (2013). The relationship between spirituality and burnout among medical students. Journal of Contemporary Medical Education, 1(2), 1. doi:10.5455/jcme.20130104060612  Medical student burnout has been associated with depression, loss of empathy, and suicidal ideation. Spirituality has been identified in previous studies as a protective factor in coping with the stress but has not been examined as a factor in medical student burnout. An internet link to an anonymous survey was sent via email to medical students at a public northeastern medical school; 259/469 (55.2%) completed it. The survey included measures of spirituality, burnout, psychological distress, coping, and general happiness. A Pearson-r correlation showed significant inverse correlations between measures of spirituality and measures of psychological distress/burnout (r’s ranging from -.62 to -.14; p’s <.01). In contrast, a positive correlation was found between life satisfaction and spirituality (r’s .53 to .12; p<.05). Using hierarchical multiple regression with demographics (Step 1), mental health variables (Step 2), and satisfaction and Adaptive coping (Step 3), burnout remained significantly related to lower scores on both spirituality measures (FACIT-SP p<.00 and DSES p<.05). Students having higher levels of spiritual well being and daily spiritual experiences described themselves as more satisfied with their life in general, while students with low scores on spiritual well being and daily spiritual experiences had higher levels of psychological distress and burnout. Spirituality may therefore be a protective factor against burnout in medical students and future studies should explore potential causal relationships.

Weinfurt, Kevin P, Damon M Seils, Li Lin, Daniel P Sulmasy, Alan B Astrow, Herbert I Hurwitz, Roger B Cohen, and Neal J Meropol. “Research Participants’ High Expectations of Benefit in Early-Phase Oncology Trials: Are We Asking the Right Question?” Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 30, no. 35 (December 10, 2012): 4396–400. doi:10.1200/JCO.2011.40.6587.  PURPOSE: To determine whether patients’ expectations of benefit in early-phase oncology trials depend on how patients are queried and to explore whether expectations are associated with patient characteristics. Main outcomes were differences in expectations by question type and the extent to which expectations were associated with demographic characteristics, numeracy, dispositional optimism, religiousness/spirituality, understanding of research, and other measures. The belief-type group had a higher mean expectation of benefit (64.4 of 100) than the combination group (51.6; P = .01) and the frequency-type group (43.1; P < .001). Mean expectations in the combination and frequency groups were not significantly different (P = .06). Belief-type expectations were associated with a preference for nonquantitative information (r = -0.19; 95% CI, -0.19 to -0.36), knowledge about research (r = -0.21; 95% CI, -0.38 to -0.03), dispositional optimism (r = 0.20; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.37), and spirituality  [measured using the DSES] (r = 0.22; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.38). Frequency-type expectations were associated with knowledge about clinical research (r = -0.27; 95% CI, -0.27 to -0.51). CONCLUSION: In early-phase oncology trials, patients’ reported expectations of benefit differed according to how patients were queried and were associated with patient characteristics. These findings have implications for how informed consent is obtained and assessed.

Whitehead, B. R., & Bergeman, C. S. (2011). Coping with Daily Stress: Differential Role of Spiritual Experience on Daily Positive and Negative Affect. The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, 1-4. doi:10.1093/geronb/gbr136

Wutoh, A. K., English, G. N., Daniel, M., Kendall, K. A., Cobran, E. K., Tasker, V. C., Hodges, G., et al. (2011). Pilot study to assess HIV knowledge, spirituality, and risk behaviors among older African Americans. Journal of the National Medical Association, 103(3), 265. A pilot study was conducted in anticipation of implementation of a larger project to assess human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviors among older African Americans. A cross-sectional methodology was employed, including 33 African Americans aged more than 50 years in the metropolitan Washington, DC, area. The average age of the participants was 66 years old, with an age range from 51 to 86 years. Data were collected utilizing previously validated instruments that were administered using an audio computer-assisted survey instrument. There was relatively high knowledge regarding HIV, with female participants scoring significantly higher compared to male participants (p = .003). Another specific finding of the preliminary study was the association between higher levels of spirituality and lower levels of HIV sexual risk behaviors (Spearman’s correlation = –0.369, p = .035). Results of this pilot study suggest that older African American females may be more knowledgeable regarding HIV than older African American males. This may suggest that educational and behavioral interventions developed for this group may need to be structured based upon the targeted gender of the audience. The association between increased spirituality [measured using the DSES] and decreased risk behaviors may suggest that spiritually-based interventions may provide some benefit regarding reduction of HIV risk behaviors in this population. However, the small sample size in this study warrants caution in the conclusions and highlights the need for further research in this population.

Williams, B. R., Holt, C. L., Le, D., & Schulz, E. (2015). Characterizing Change in Religious and Spiritual Identity Among a National Sample of African American Adults. Journal of Religion, Spirituality & Aging, 27(4), 343–357. JOUR.

Wnuk, Marcin. “Religious–spiritual Sources of Hope and the Meaning of Life in Alcohol Co-Dependent Subjects Receiving Support in Self-Help Groups.” Journal of Substance Use (March 12, 2014): 1–6. doi:10.3109/14659891.2014.896954. Aim: To determine whether various key aspects of religiousness can be positively related to the meaning of life as well as in having hope. Methods: A sample of 40 subjects was surveyed from a group attending Al-Anon, in Poznan, Poland. Assessments were performed using the following psychometric testing tools; Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire (SCSORFQ), Daily Spiritual Experience Scale (DSES), Brief RCOPE (RCOPE), one-item question scales on how often prayers were said and holy mass attended, Purpose in Life Test (PIL) and the Herth Hope Index (HHI). Results: It was found that positive aspects of religious coping and frequencies of prayer, attending mass and spiritual experiences were all directly related. The positive ways of religious coping with stress were found to be mediated through frequencies of having spiritual experiences, prayer, going to mass and feelings about the meaning of life. The frequencies of the former were indeed likewise found to be mediated by positive religious coping with stress, how often prayers were said and mass attended as well as the strength of one’s hope.

Wnuk, Marcin, and Jerzy Tadeusz Marcinkowski. “Do Existential Variables Mediate between Religious-Spiritual Facets of Functionality and Psychological Wellbeing.” Journal of Religion and Health 53, no. 1 (February 2014): 56–67. doi:10.1007/s10943-012-9597-6.

Yablonsky, A. (2013). A Platform for Nursing Research on Spirituality and Religiosity. Western journal of nursing research. doi:10.1177/0193945913484391 (strong defense of utility of the DSES.)

Yeary, K. H. K., Cornell, C. E., Prewitt, E., Bursac, Z., Tilford, J. M., Turner, J., … Harris, K. (2015). The WORD (Wholeness, Oneness, Righteousness, Deliverance): design of a randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of an evidence-based weight loss and maintenance intervention translated for a faith-based, rural, African American population usi. Contemporary Clinical Trials, 40, 63–73. Uses DSES. The positive effects of weight loss on obesity-related risk factors diminish unless weight loss is maintained. Yet littlework has focused on the translation of evidence-basedweight loss interventions with the aim of sustaining weight loss in underserved populations. Using a community-based participatory approach (CBPR) that engages the strong faith-based social infrastructure characteristic of rural African American communities is a promising way to sustain weight loss in African Americans, who bear a disproportionate burden of the obesity epidemic. Objectives: Led by a collaborative community–academic partnership, The WORD aims to change dietary and physical activity behaviors to produce and maintain weight loss in rural, African American adults of faith. Design: The WORD is a randomized controlled trial with 450 participants nested within 30 churches. All churches will receive a 16-session core weight loss intervention. Half of the churches will be randomized to receive an additional 12-session maintenance component. Methods: The WORD is a cultural adaptation of the Diabetes Prevention Program, whereby small groupswill be led by trained church members. Participants will be assessed at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months. A detailed cost-effectiveness and process evaluation will be included. Summary: The WORD aims to sustain weight loss in rural African Americans. The utilization of a CBPR approach and the engagement of the faith-based social infrastructure of African American communities will maximize the intervention’s sustainability. Unique aspects of this trial include the focus on weight loss maintenance and the use of a faith-based CBPR approach in translating evidence-based obesity interventions.

Young KW (2012).Positive effects of Spirituality on Quality of life for People with Severe Mental Illness. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. Vol 16(2) 62-77  Abstract: Recently, various bio-psycho-social factors have been identified in relation to quality of life for people with mental illness, but the role of spiritual factors on it has been relatively neglected. This study aims at exploring the positive effect of spirituality on quality of life for people with severe mental illness. 103 Chinese people with severe mental illness who are Christian and have received service from two community-based psychiatric rehabilitation projects in Hong Kong are included in this study. Respondent’s quality of life is measured by Chinese World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument, while respondents’ spirituality is assessed by Chinese translation of the Daily Spiritual Experience Scale. Daily spiritual experience is found moderately and positively related to individual’s overall quality of life (r=.433, p=.000) and all quality of life sub-domains. Also daily spiritual experience can predict individual’s overall quality of life and explain 18.7% variance of it. As spirituality has positive effects on quality of life for people with severe mental illness, mental health professionals should further explore effective spiritual interventions in enhancing quality of life for our service users.

Zerach, G. (2013). Compassion fatigue and compassion satisfaction among residential child care workers: The role of personality resources. Residential Treatment for Children and Youth, 30(1), 72–91. DOI: 10.1080/0886571X.2012.761515. This study assessed compassion fatigue (CF) and compassion satisfaction (CS) among Israeli residential child-care workers (RCWs) working in residential treatment facilities for children and youth at risk (N = 147) as compared to educational boarding schools workers (BSWs; N = 74). Furthermore, we assessed the relationship of potential personality-related buffers of attachment orientations, spirituality [Using the DSES], and sense of coherence to CF and CS among these workers via self-report measures.

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See Underwood 2011 and Underwood 2013 for summary findings of many of these articles that were available for inclusion in those review publications:

Allen, R.S.; Phillips, L.L.; Roff, L.L.; Cavanaugh, R.; Day, L. Religiousness/spirituality and mental health among older male inmates. Gerontol. 2008, 48, 692-697. We examined the relation of religiousness/spirituality; demographic characteristics such as age, race, and type of crime; and physical and mental health among 73 older male inmates in the state of Alabama. Design and Methods: Inmates older than age 50 who passed a cognitive screening completed face-to-face interviews lasting between 30 and 60 min. Due to the low literacy rates of the participants, we administered all measures orally with response cards to facilitate understanding. Results: Nearly 70% of the inmates were incarcerated for murder or sexual crimes. There were no racial/ethnic differences in reported religiousness/spirituality, demographic characteristics, or mental health. We found an association between self-reported years of incarceration and experienced forgiveness. Three regression models examined whether inmates’ self-reported religiousness/spirituality influenced anxiety, depression, and desire for hastened death. We found that having a greater number of daily spiritual experiences and not feeling abandoned by God were associated with better emotional health. Implications: Future studies, perhaps using longitudinal or case-control methodology, should examine whether increased daily spiritual experiences and decreased feelings of abandonment by God foster better mental health among older inmates.  

Ayo, H.T.; Agofure, S.H.; Adebukola, K. Psychosocial variables as predictors of work family conflict among secondary school teachers in Irele Local Government Area, Ondo State, Nigeria. Pak. J. Soc. Sci. 2009, 6, 11-18.

Bailly, N.; Roussiau, N. The Daily Spiritual Experience Scale (DSES): Validation of the short form in an elderly French population. Can. J. Aging. 2010, 29, 223-231.

Ballew SH, Hannum SM, Gaines JM, Marx KA, P. J. (2011). The Role of Spiritual Experiences and Activities in the Relationship Between Chronic Illness and Psychological Well-Being. Journal of Religion and Health. December 2012, Volume 51, Issue 4, 1386-1396     Abstract: Our research explores the correlates of spiritual experiences over a 2-year period in a sample of older adults (N = 164; mean age 81.9 years) living in a continuing care retirement community. Utilizing responses to the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale, scores were analyzed for changes over time and for their hypothesized moderating effect in the relationship between chronic illness impact and markers of psychological well-being (as measured by the Geriatric Depression and Life Satisfaction scales). Repeated measures ANOVA indicated a significant decline (P\.01) in the reported spiritual experiences over a 2-year period of time, and t tests showed a significant difference by gender (P\.01) in years 1 and 2, with women reporting higher levels of spiritual experiences than men. Analyses found low spirituality scores associated with low life satisfaction in all years (baseline: r = -.288, P\.01; year 1: r = -.209, P\.05; year 2: r = -.330, P\.001). Only weak associations were detected between low spirituality and the presence of depressive symptoms at baseline (r = .186, P\.05) and year 2 (r = .254, P\.01). Moderation effects of spirituality on the relationship between chronic illness impact and markers of psychological well-being were explored in all years, with a statistically significant effect found only for the presence of depressive symptoms in year 2. Higher impact of chronic illnesses is associated with more depressive symptoms under conditions of low spirituality. Future research may center upon longer-duration effects.

Bay, P.S.; Ivy, S.S.; Terry, C.L. The effect of spiritual retreat on nurses’ spirituality: A randomized controlled study. Holist. Nurs. Pract. 2010, 24, 125-133. This study tested whether two 1-day retreats focused on spiritual self-care would positively change nurse participants’ spirituality [measured by the DSES]. A total of 199 critical care nurses were accepted into this study; 87 were randomized to receive the retreat intervention. All 199 nurses were tested preretreat, 1 month and 6 months postretreat. Retreat participants demonstrated increased spirituality.

Boelens, P.A.; Reeves, R.R.; Replogle, W.H.; Koenig, H.G. A randomized trial of the effect of prayer on depression and anxiety. Int. J. Psychiatry Med. 2009, 39, 377-392.

Brelsford, G.M.; Marinelli, S.; Ciarrochi, J.W.; Dy-Liacco, G.S. Generativity and spiritual disclosure in close relationships. Psychol. Relig. Spritual. 2009, 1, 150-161.

Boswell, G.H.; Kahana, E.; Dilworth-Anderson, P. Spirituality and healthy lifestyle behaviors: Stress counter-balancing effects on the well-being of older adults. J. Relig. Health 2006,45, 587-602.

Blumenthal, J.A.; Babyak, M.A.; Ironson, G.; Thorensen, C.; Powell, L.; Czajkowski, S.; Burg, M.; Keefe, F.J.; Steffen, P.; Catellier, D. Spirituality, religion, and clinical outcomes in patients recovering from an acute myocardial infarction. Psychosom. Med. 2007, 69, 501-508.

Campbell, J.D.; Yoon, D.P.; Johnstone, B. Determining relationships between physical health and spiritual experience, religious practices, and congregational support in a heterogeneous medical sample. J. Relig. Health 2010, 49, 3-17.

Ciarrocchi, J.W.; Deneke, E. Happiness and the varieties of religious experience: Religious support, practices, and spirituality as predictors of well-being. Res. Soc. Sci. Study Relig. 2005, 15, 209-233.

Ciarrocchi, J.W.; Deneke, E. Hope, optimism, pessimism, and spirituality as predictors of well-being controlling for personality. Res. Soc. Sci. Study Relig. 2005, 16, 161-183.

Cole, B.S.; Hopkins, C.M.; Tisak, J.; Steel, J.L.; Carr, B.I. Assessing spiritual growth and spiritual decline following a diagnosis of cancer: Reliability and validity of the spiritual transformation scale. Psycho-Oncol. 2008, 121, 112-121.

Dean, M. Islam and psychosocial wellness in an American Afghan refugee community. PhD dissertation, Curtin University, Centre for International Health, 2006.

Desrosiers, A.; Miller, L. Relational spirituality and depression in adolescent girls. J. Clin. Psychol. 2007, 63, 1021-1037.

Duffy, R. Spirituality, religion, and work values. J. Psychol. Theol. 2010, 38, 1-17.

Dunn, K.S.; Wordlaw, S.L.; Chapleski, E. Everyday spirituality in central city elders. J. Relig. Spritual. Aging 2003, 15, 41-59.

Easterling, L.; Gamino, L.; Sewell, K.W.; Stirman, L.S. Spiritual experience, church attendance, and bereavement. J. Past. Care 2000, 54, 263-275.

Ellison, C.G.; Fan, D. Daily spiritual experiences and psychological well-being among US adults. Soc. Indic. Res. 2008, 88, 247-271. Abstract: “This study focuses on one of the most significant recent innovations in the conceptualization and measurement of religiousness and spirituality, the Daily Spiritual Experience Scale. Using data from 1998 and 2004 NORC General Social Surveys, we address a number of questions regarding the social patterning of daily spiritual experiences, and the relationships between spiritual experiences and multiple dimensions of psychological well-being. Our results suggest a robust positive association between DSES and psychological well-being. By contrast, DSES appears to have little bearing on negative affect. We also found that DSES does not account for the association between religious practices and psychological variables. That is, DSES appears to tap another aspect of spirituality that is relevant for well-being, above and beyond the influence of religious practices.”

Fehr, B., Sprecher, S., Underwood, L.G. The Science of Compassionate Love: Theory, Research and Applications. Wiley-Blackwell: Malden, MA, USA, 2009.

Fincham, Frank D., Christine Ajayi, and Steven R. H. Beach. 2011. “Spirituality and Marital Satisfaction in African American Couples.” Psychology of Religion and Spirituality 3 (4): 259–268. doi:10.1037/a0023909. This study examined the relationship between spiritual experiences of African Americans and their marital quality. Couples (N = 487) completed measures of marital quality as well as a daily spiritual experience measure [DSES] and an index of religiosity. Using the standard Quality Marriage Index, actor and partner effects were found for both spouses, and these remained when religiosity was controlled. Support was also obtained for two separate dimensions of marital quality comprising evaluations of positive and negative aspects of the relationship. Husbands’  more frequent DSE’s spirituality strongly predicted less negative marital quality whereas actor effects for wives were almost equal in absolute magnitude for both positive and negative marital quality. Taking overall marital quality into account, the spirituality-negative dimension association was significantly stronger for husbands than wives. These results are discussed in terms of behaviors that may enhance spiritual experiences and factors that may mediate their relationship to marital quality.

Fitzgibbon ML et al., “Results of a Faith-Based Weight Loss Intervention for Black Women,” Journal of the National Medical Association 97, no. 10 (2005): 1393–402.

Fowler, D. N., Faulkner, M., Learman, J., & Runnels, R. (2011). The Influence of Spirituality on Service Utilization and Satisfaction for Women Residing in a Domestic Violence Shelter. Violence Against Women. doi:10.1177/1077801211424480

Geary, C., & Rosenthal, S. L. (2011). Sustained Impact of MBSR on Stress, Well-Being, and Daily Spiritual Experiences for 1 Year in Academic Health Care Employees. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 17(10), 939-944. doi:10.1089/acm.2010.0335 Abstract: Objectives: The objectives of the study were (1) to evaluate self-reported stress levels and daily spiritual experiences in academic health care employees before, immediately after, and 1 year after enrolling in a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) course; and (2) to evaluate the correlation between a potential measure of pulse rate variability and self-reported stress levels. Subjects: Fifty-nine (59) participants in the MBSR course offered to employees at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston (UTMB) comprised the intervention group, and 94 health care providers in the neonatal nurseries comprised the control group. Intervention: MBSR is an 8-week course that introduces mindfulness meditation practices. No intervention was offered to the control group. All participants were employees (or relatives of employees) at UTMB. Design: All MBSR participants completed Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale, the SCL-90, the SF-36 Measure of Health and Well-Being, the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale, and a 5-minute measure of pulse rate coherence. This testing was done before and after the MBSR course and 1 year later. Ninety-four (94) neonatal health care providers completed the same series of questionnaires and pulse rate variability (PRV) measures, with 49 of the 94 completing the questionnaires 2 months and 1 year later. Results: MBSR participants improved on all measures except the physical component score of the SF-36 upon completion of the MBSR course, and these results were maintained at the 1-year follow-up. The control group did not significantly change on any of the measures. PRV as measured by the Heart Math system did not correlate with any of the self-report questionnaires. Conclusions: MBSR effectively reduces self-report measures of stress and increases daily spiritual experiences in employees in an academic health care setting, and these effects are stable for at least 1 year. Using a simple measure of PRV was not a clinically reliable biologic measure of stress.

Goldstein, E.D. Sacred moments: Implications on well-being and stress. J. Clin. Psychol. 2007, 63, 1001-1019.

Greeson, J. M., Webber, D. M., Smoski, M. J., Brantley, J. G., Ekblad, A. G., Suarez, E. C., & Wolever, R. Q. (2011). Changes in spirituality partly explain health-related quality of life outcomes after Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction. Journal of behavioral medicine, 1-11-11. (Spirituality measure was DSES)

Hall, D.E.; Koenig, H.G.; Meador, K.G. Episcopal measure of faith tradition: A context-specific approach to measuring religiousness. J. Rel. Health 2010, 49, 164-178.

Han, J.; Richardson, V.; The relationship between depression and loneliness among homebound older persons: Does spirituality moderate this relationship? J. Relig. Spiritual. Soc. Work: Soc. Thought 2010, 29, 218-236.

Harris, S.K.; Sherritt, L.R.; Holdeer, D.W.; Kulig, J. Shrier, L.A.; Knight, J.R. Reliability and validity of the brief multidimensional measure of religiousness/spirituality among adolescents. J. Relig. Health 2008, 47, 438-457.

Holder, M.D.; Coleman, B.; Wallace, J. M. Spirituality, religiousness, and happiness in children aged 8-12 years. J. Happiness Stud. 2008, 11, 131-150.

Holland, J.M.; Neimeyer, R.A. Reducing the risk of burnout in end-of-life care settings: The role of daily spiritual experiences and training. Palliat. Support. Care 2005, 3, 173-181. OBJECTIVE: Individuals in the helping professions are subject to unique stressors that may lead to burnout, and research has shown that those who work with dying or bereaved individuals might be particularly at-risk. This study explores how factors such as spirituality and level of training might buffer the stress of working with terminally ill clients and their families. METHOD: A total of 80 medical and mental health practitioners attending palliative care seminars were surveyed, with each completing validated measures of daily spiritual experiences and caregiver burnout, as well as assessments of demographic factors, their general education and training experiences specific to working in end-of-life care and bereavement settings. RESULTS: Findings indicate that daily spiritual experiences might mitigate physical, cognitive, and emotional forms of burnout in the workplace. In addition, a negative correlation was found between the amount of end-of-life training received and burnout in the physical and cognitive domains. However, training was not related to professionals’ level of emotional exhaustion. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEARCH: Results reinforce a growing literature on the salutary effects of spirituality, and underscore its relevance as one possible form of constructive coping for professionals attending to the needs of the dying and bereaved. The study carries further implications for how the stresses of such work might be ameliorated by enhanced training efforts, as well as creative facilitation of diverse spiritual expressions (e.g., inclusive forms of ritual recognition of loss) in the workplace.

Houston, D.J. Spirituality and public service. Public Adm. Rev. 2007, 16, 88-102.

Hufford David J ; Fritts Matthew J. ,Rhodes , Jeffrey E. Spiritual Fitness DSES listed as a good metric, Military Medicine August 2010 Supplement, 175:8

Idler, E.; Musick, M.; Ellison, C.; George, L.; Krause, N.; Ory, M.G.; Pargament, K.I.; Powell, L.H.; Underwood, L.G.; Williams, D.R. Measuring multiple dimensions of religion and spirituality for health research. Res. Aging 2003, 25, 327-364.

Kalkstein, S.; Tower, R.B.; The Daily Spiritual Experience Scale and well-being: Demographic comparisons and scale validation with older Jewish adults and a diverse internet sample. J. Relig. Health 2009, 48, 401-417.

Keefe, F.J.; Affleck, G.; Lefebvre, J.; Underwood, L.; Caldwell, D.S.; Drew, J.; Egert, J.; Gibson, J.; Pargament, K. Living with rheumatoid arthritis: The role of daily spirituality and daily religious and spiritual coping. J. Pain 2001, 2, 101-110.

Koenig. H.G.; George, L.K.; Titus, P.; Meador, K.G. Religion, spirituality, and acute care hospitalization and long-term care by older patients. Arch. Intern. Med. 2004, 164, 1579-1585.

Koenig, H.G.; George, L.K.; Titus, P. Religion, spirituality and health in medically ill hospitalized older patients. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 2004, 52, 554-562.

Loustalot, F.; Wyatt, S.B.; Sims, M.; Ellison, C.G.; Taylor, H.A.; Underwood, L.G. Psychometric testing of the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study. J. Relig. Health 2009, doi: 10.1007/s10943-009-9278-2. This study provided the first examination of the psychometric properties of the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES) in a large African American sample, the Jackson Heart Study (JHS). The JHS included measures of spiritual (DSES) and religious practices. Internal reliability, dimensionality, fit indices, and correlation were assessed. DSES scores reflected frequent daily spiritual experiences (12.84 +/- 4.72) and reliability scores were high (alpha = 0.85; 95% CI 0.84-0.86). The DSES loaded on a single factor, with significant goodness-of-fit scores (RMSEA = 0.094, P < 0.01). Moderate significant correlations were noted among DSES items. Our findings confirm that the 6-item DSES had excellent psychometric properties in this sample. 

Loustalot, FV, SB Wyatt, and B Boss. 2006. “Psychometric Examination of the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale.” Journal of Cultural Diversity 13 (3): 162–7. Despite the burgeoning research literature addressing spirituality and its measurements, few instruments have undergone rigorous reliability and validity testing. This study contributed to determining the reliability and validity of the 16- and 6-item Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES) in a convenience sample of African Americans ages 34-85. Data were collected via self-administered questionnaire including the DSES and sociodemographic variables thought to influence spiritual experiences. Data were analyzed using paired t-tests, ANOVA, inter-class correlation coefficients, Pearson’s correlation, and Cronbach’s alpha. Both versions were stable over time, internally consistent, and the forms were equivalent and valid in an all-African American sample.

Luquis, R. R., Brelsford, G. M., & Rojas-Guyler, L. (2011). Religiosity, Spirituality, Sexual Attitudes, and Sexual Behaviors Among College Students. Journal of religion and health. doi:10.1007/s10943-011-9527-z

Maisel, N.; Rauer, A.; Marshall, G.; Karney, B.R. Social support after a partner’s traumatic injury: Situational, relationship, and individual difference predictors. In Support processes in intimate relationships; Sullivan, K., Davila, J., Eds.; Oxford University Press: New York, NY, USA, 2010; pp. 264-288.

Maselko, J.; Kubzansky, L.D. Gender differences in religious practices, spiritual experiences and health: Results from the US General Social Survey. Soc. Sci. Med. 2006, 62, 2848-2860.

McCauley, J.; Tarpley, M.J.; Haaz, S.; Bartlett, S.J. Daily spiritual experiences of older adults with and without arthritis and the relationship to health outcomes. Arthritis Rheum. 2008, 59, 122-128.  RESULTS: Of 99 patients, 80% reported DSE most days and many times per day. Women had significantly lower DSE scores than men (reflecting more frequent DSE, mean+/-SD 37.3+/-15.0 versus 45.8+/-17.5; P=0.012). African American women reported the most frequent DSE and white men reported the least frequent DSE (mean+/-SD 35.9+/-13.6 versus 52.2+/-19.1). Frequent DSE were significantly associated with a higher number of comorbid conditions (P=0.003), although not with age, education, or employment status. Persons with arthritis reported significantly more DSE than those without arthritis (mean+/-SD 35.2+/-12.1 versus 47.1+/-18.6; P<0.001). After adjustment for age, race, sex, pain, and comorbid conditions, more frequent DSE were associated with increased energy (P<0.009) and less depression (P<0.007) in patients with arthritis. CONCLUSION: DSE are common among older adults, especially those with arthritis. Increased DSE may be associated with more energy and less depression. DSE may represent one pathway through which spirituality influences mental health in older adults.

McCracken, L.M.; Gauntlett-Gilbert, J.; Vowles, K.E. The role of mindfulness in a contextual cognitive-behavioral analysis of chronic pain-related suffering and disability. Pain 2007,131, 63-69.

Miller, W.R.; Forcehimes, A.; O’Leary, M.J.; LaNoue, M.D.; Spiritual direction in addiction treatment: Two clinical trials. J. Subst. Abus. Treat. 2008, 35, 434-442.

Mofidi, M.; DeVellis, R.F.; Blazer, D.G.; DeVellis, B.M.; Panter, A.T.; Jordan, J.M. Spirituality and depressive symptoms in a racially diverse US sample of community-dwelling adults. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 2006, 194, 975-977. The role of spirituality in depression is understudied. We examined the relationship between one dimension of spirituality, spiritual experiences, and depressive symptoms, and evaluated whether differences in gender, race, age, and stress moderated the relationship. The study was conducted with a community-based sample of 630 racially diverse middle-aged and older adults. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate a model linking spiritual experiences to depressive symptoms while controlling for demographic and health variables. The model achieved satisfactory goodness of fit. Spiritual experiences were significantly associated with fewer depressive symptoms, and age as well as stress moderated the association, but not gender and race. Spirituality appears to be a psychosocial resource against depressive symptoms, although the results must be confirmed in longitudinal investigations.

Mustea, A; Baba, TC; Negru, O. Personal Goals: A New Approach in Studying Religious Motivation, Society and Politics 5:1(9), April 2011

Ng, S.-M.; Ted, C.T.; Fong, E.; Tsui, Y.L.; Friendly, A.-Y.; Law, S.K.W. Validation of the Chinese version of Underwood’s Daily Spiritual Experience Scale—transcending cultural boundaries? Int. J. Behav. Med. 2009, 16, 91-97.

Oliveira, A.L.; Kimura, M.; Mishima, L.S. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Daily Spiritual Experience Scale for the Brazilian culture. Qual. Life Res. 2010, 19 (Suppl. 1), 48.

Park, C.L.; Edmondson, D.; Hale-Smith, A.; Blank, T.O. Religiousness/spirituality and health behaviors in younger adult cancer survivors: Does faith promote a healthier lifestyle? J. Behav. Med. 2009, 32, 582-591. Positive health behaviors are crucial to cancer survivors’ well-being, yet little is known about the personal factors that may facilitate positive health behaviors. The current study focuses on the association of religion/spirituality (R/S) and health behaviors, examining links between health behaviors and religious attendance, daily spiritual experiences, and religious struggle in a sample of 167 younger adult survivors of a variety of cancers. The extent to which positive affect (self-assurance) and negative affect (guilt/shame) mediate these links was also investigated. Results revealed that religious attendance had little impact on health behaviors, but that daily spiritual experiences were related to greater performance of health behaviors, while religious struggle was related to less. Self-assurance partially mediated the effects of daily spiritual experiences, while guilt/shame partially mediated the effects of religious struggle. The findings suggest that aspects of R/S may play important and different roles in the lifestyle choices of cancer survivors.

Park, C.L.; Brooks, M.; Sussman, J. Dimensions of religion and spirituality in psychological adjustment in older adults living with congestive heart failure. In Faith and Well-being in Later Life: Linking Theory with Evidence in an Interdisciplinary Inquiry; Ai, A., Ardelt, M., Eds.; Nova Science Publishers: Hauppauge, NY, USA, 2009; pp. 41-58. Daily Spiritual Experiences were related to increased self efficacy in dealing with one’s illness.

Park J, and Roh S, “Daily Spiritual Experiences, Social Support, and Depression among Elderly Korean Immigrants,” Aging & Mental Health, DOI:10.1080/13607863.2012.715138 This was accessed online. 2012 Aug 13. [Epub ahead of print]

Parhami I, Davtian M, Collard M, Lopez J, and Fong TW, “A Preliminary 6-Month Prospective Study Examining Self-Reported Religious Preference, Religiosity/Spirituality, and Retention at a Jewish Residential Treatment Center for Substance-Related Disorders,” Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Research (2005), doi:10.1007/s11414-012-9279-x.  Although there is a substantial amount of research suggesting that higher levels of religiosity/spirituality (R/S) are associated with better treatment outcomes of substance-related disorders, no studies have explored this relationship at a faith-based residential treatment center. The objective of this prospective study is to explore the relationship between R/S, self-reported religious preference, and retention at a Jewish residential treatment center for substance-related disorders. Using the Daily Spiritual Experience Scale, R/S levels were assessed for 33 subjects at baseline, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months. Results demonstrated a significant relationship between baseline R/S level and retention at 6 months, while R/S levels were unchanged during the course of treatment. Notably, no relationship was found between self-reported religious affiliation and retention. This study demonstrates that patients’ R/S level, rather than religious affiliation, is a possible predictor for better outcome at faith-based residential centers for substance-related disorders.

Pranckeviciene, Aiste, Zasytyte, Egidija, Gustianiene, Loreta (2008), Relationship between Spirituality and Wellness in a Sample of University Students. International Jouranl of Psychology: A Biosocial Approach, 2.

Rippentrop, A.E.; Altmaier, E.M.; Chen, J.J. The relationship between religion/spirituality and physical health, mental health, and pain in a chronic pain population. Pain 2005, 116, 311-321.

Roberts S. and Jarrett T, “Are Spiritual People Really Less Evil? A Study Exploring the Influence of Spirituality on Deviance in the Workplace,” Presentation at the Midwest Academy of Management Fifty-Fourth Annual Conference, Omaha, Nebraska, October 20–22, 2011.

Roff, L.L.; Durkin, D.; Sun, F.; Klemmack, D.L. Widowhood, religiousness and self-assessed well-being among older adults. J. Relig. Spritual. Aging 2007, 19, 43-60.

Robinson, E.; Cranford, J.; Webb, J.; Brower, K. Six-month changes in spirituality, religiousness, and heavy drinking in a treatment-seeking sample. J. Stud. Alcohol Drugs 2007, 68, 282-290.

Roof, R. A. (2014). The Association of Individual Spirituality on Employee Engagement: The Spirit at Work. Journal of Business Ethics, June. Uses DSES

Sanchez, E.G.M.; Arocena, F.A.L.; Ceballos, J.C.M. Daily spiritual experience in Basques and Mexicans: A quantitative study. J. Transpers. Res. 2010, 2, 10-25. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of daily spiritual experience, as measured by the Daily Spiritual Experience Scale-Spanish (DSES-S), with life satisfaction, positive/negative affect, psychological well-being and personality in a sample of Basques (N=100) and Mexicans (N=96). Among the findings were that Basques reported a greater frequency of daily spiritual experience than their Mexican peers. In addition, Atheists and Agnostics reported more daily spirituality than Christians and Catholics. Finally, daily spiritual experience was positively correlated with life satisfaction, positive affect, and psychological well-being, and negatively correlated with indicators of anxiety and depression.

Sessanna, L., Finnell, D. S., Underhill, M., Chang, Y.-P., & Peng, H.-L. (2011). Measures assessing spirituality as more than religiosity: a methodological review of nursing and health-related literature. Journal of advanced nursing, 1-18. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05596.x

Serrano, Sonia, and Cortes, Christina. The interplay of spirituality, health, personal leisure time and well-being, Online publication

Shorkey, C.; Uebel, M.; Windsor, L.C. Measuring dimensions of spirituality in chemical dependence treatment and recovery: Research and practice. Int. J. Ment. Health Addict. 2008, 6, 286-305.

Skarupski, K.; Fitchett, G.; Evans, D.; Mendes, C.F. Daily spiritual experiences in a biracial community-based population of older adults. Aging Men. Health 2010, 14, 779-789.  In a regression model adjusting for age, sex, marital status, education, income and worship attendance, we found that African American race was associated with lower life satisfaction. We also found a positive association between spiritual experiences and life satisfaction. In an additional model, a significant race by spiritual experiences interaction term indicates that spiritual experiences are more positively associated with life satisfaction among African Americans. Conclusion: The data suggest that at higher levels of spiritual experiences, racial differences in life satisfaction are virtually non-existent. However, at lower levels of spiritual experiences, older African Americans show modestly lower levels of life satisfaction than do older Whites. This pattern suggests that spiritual experiences are a positive resource – distinct from worship attendance – that enable older African Americans to overcome decrements in life satisfaction and, in fact, that lower spiritual experiences may be especially harmful for older African American’s life satisfaction.

Stewart, C.; Koeske, G.F.; Koeske, R.D. Personal religiosity and spirituality associated with social work practitioners’ use of religious-based intervention practices. J. Relig. Spiritual. Soc. Work: Soc. Thought 2006, 25, 69-85.

Steinhauser, K. E., Alexander, S. C., Byock, I. R., George, L. K., Olsen, M. K., & Tulsky, J. A. (2008). Do preparation and life completion discussions improve functioning and quality of life in seriously ill patients? Pilot randomized control trial. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 11(9), 1234-1240.

Stewart, C.; Koeske, G.F. A preliminary construct validation of the Multidimensional Measurement of Religiousness/Spirituality Instrument: A study of Southern USA. Int. J. Psychol. Relig. 2009, 16, 181-196.

Taylor, E.J.; Mamier, I.; Bahjri, K.; Anton, T.; Petersen, F. Efficacy of a self-study programme to teach spiritual care. J. Clin. Nurs. 2009, 18, 1131-1140.

Van Dyke, C.J.; Glenwick, D.; Cecero, J.; Kim, S.K. The relationship of religious coping and spirituality to adjustment and psychological distress in urban early adolescents. Ment. Health Relig. Cult. 2009, 12, 369-383.  The present study explored the relation of religious coping and spirituality to adjustment and psychological distress in urban early adolescents. The participants were 76 sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade students attending Catholic day schools in the New York City area. They completed a set of self-report measures assessing religious coping, daily spiritual experiences, positive and negative affect, life satisfaction, and psychological distress. Correlational and regression analyses found positive religious coping and daily spiritual experiences to be associated with positive affect and life satisfaction, while negative religious coping was associated with negative affect and psychological distress. The relations generally were more robust among males, and their overall robustness decreased with age. Implications of the findings for research and clinical practice are offered to address the gap (compared to adults) in the literature on youth religious coping.

Voltmer, E.; Büssing, A.; Thomas, C.; Spahn, C. Religiosität, Spiritualität, Gesundheit und Berufsbezogene Verhaltensmuster bei Pastoren zweier freikirchlich-protestantischer Denominationen/Religiosity (Spirituality, health and work-related behavior patterns in pastors of two Free Protestant denominations). Psychother. Psych. Med. 2010, 60, 425-433.

Woods, G. The ‘bigger feeling’: The importance of spiritual experience in educational leadership. Educ. Manag. Adm. Leadersh. 2007, 35, 135-155.

Watlington, C. The roles of religion and spirituality among African American survivors of domestic violence. J. Clin. Psychol. 2006, 62, 837-857.

Wachholtz, A.B.; Pargament, K.I. Is spirituality a critical ingredient of meditation? Comparing the effects of spiritual meditation, secular meditation, and relaxation on spiritual, psychological, cardiac, and pain outcomes. J. Behav. Med. 2005, 28, 369-384. This study compared secular and spiritual forms of meditation to assess the benefits of a spiritual intervention. Participants were taught a meditation or relaxation technique to practice for 20 min a day for two weeks. After two weeks, participants returned to the lab, practiced their technique for 20 min, and placed their hand in a cold-water bath of 2 degrees C for as long as they could endure it. The length of time that individuals kept their hand in the water bath was measured. Pain, anxiety, mood, and the spiritual health [measured by DSES] were assessed following the two-week intervention. Significant interactions occurred (time x group); the Spiritual Meditation group had greater decreases in anxiety and more positive mood, and spiritual experiences [DSES] than the other two groups. They also tolerated pain almost twice as long as the other two groups.

Wehmer, M. A., Quinn Griffin, M. T., White, A. H., & Fitzpatrick, J. J. (2010). An Exploratory Study of Spiritual Dimensions Among Nursing Students. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 7(1), 40.

Wnuk, M., Tadeusz Marcinkowski, J. M., Hedzelek, M., & Sylwia Swistak-Sawa. (2010). Artykuł oryginalny
Religijno-duchowe korelaty siły nadziei oraz poczucia sensu życia pacjentów onkologicznych (Correlates of religious and spiritual forces of hope and a sense of meaning in life of cancer patients). Psychoonkologia, 1, 14-20.

Zemore, S.E.; Kaskutas, L.A. Helping, spirituality and Alcoholics Anonymous in recovery. J. Stud. Alcohol 2004, 65, 383-391.




A few of the theses already completed using the DSES:

Davila Palomino, Miguel, Sentido de Coherencia y Experiencia Espiritual en Estudiantes Universitarios de Lima, Thesis. Abstract: The present study aims at describing the relationship between daily spiritual experiences with sense of coherence in a group of 145 university students (M = 18.18), mostly women from the two first years of college. The spiritual experience was measured using DSES, and the sense of coherence was measured using SOC-13. The results show that the dimension of meaningfulness and total SOC score showed a positive association with daily spiritual experience among the students surveyed. Moreover, it was found that there were significant differences in the level of meaningfulness total SOC score and DSE depending on whether the person was a believer of a particular religion. Although there are significant differences by sex, a positive relationship between some dimensions of SOC, the total SOC and perceived health was found. The relationship between SOC and DSE could be based on the search for meaning or significance in life, which is part of the normal development of participants.

Virat, Mael.Affective dimensions of Teacher-Student relationship: effect on adolescents’ psychosocial adjustment (motivations, empathy, school adjustment and violence) and key role of teachers’ compassionate love Abstract Number of longitudinal studies in educational psychology have shown that affective teacher-student relationships (RAEE) is beneficial both at school (success, perseverance, behaviour, etc.) and outside (decrease in depression, anxiety, delinquency, etc.) (Fortin, Plante & Bradley, 2011). However, its determinants have been little studied and the role of teachers’ affective commitment on RAEE has not been estimated. This thesis grounded on attachment theory (Bowlby, 1969) aims at filling this gap with the concept of compassionate love (Underwood, 2008). In France, where the subject has not been quantitatively studied yet, the RAEE is greatly controversial, even taboo. Could its effects be tested empirically? The three motivational systems theory (Favre & Favre, 1993) enables us to understand and measure the effect of RAEE on adolescents. After validating a French version of the compassionate love scale for students (Sprecher & Fehr, 2005) in a sample of teachers (N = 275), it appears to be predictive of the RAEE (STRS, Pianta, 2001). This thesis also validates a psychometric tool to assess the three motivational systems in a sample of middle school students (N = 145). (The DSES was also used in the study.) This tool has been complemented by other instruments assessing psychological adjustment (empathy, school variables and violence) and completed in two samples (N = 113 middle school students and N = 104 students from special education units called SEGPA): RAEE promotes innovation motivation, empathy and school adjustment while protecting against addiction motivation, school indiscipline and violence. This argues for a relational approach in education, as promoted by care theorists, and for a positive educational psychology.



Bell, D.E., Jr. The relationship between distal religious and proximal spiritual variables and self-reported marital happiness. PhD dissertation, Florida State University College of Medicine, 2009.



Fitchett, George Ph.D., 2007, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT CHICAGO, HEALTH SCIENCES  The role of daily spiritual experiences in cardiovascular disease

Lyons, Geoffrey C. B, Spirituality, forgiveness and purpose in life in faith-based substance abuse treatment programs, Doctor of Philosophy (Clincal Psychology) thesis, School of Psychology, University of Wollongong, 2012.

Talia S Marmon, “Spirituality, marital quality, and psychological adjustment in pregnant Orthodox Jewish women” (January 1, 2008). ETD Collection for Fordham University. Paper AAI3301440.

Oltean, A.P. “Spirituality, Internalized Homonegativity, and Medication Adherence among Gay Men Living with HIV/AIDS” ,PhD Dissertation, University of Illinois at Chicago, 2012.

Gernat, C.A., The Relationship between Daily Spiritual Experience and Proactice, and Health, and Life Satisfaction in Doctoral-Level Counselors, PhD Thesis, Seton Hall University, 2003.

Schmidt, M. Skala zur Erfassung von spirituellen Erfahrungen im Alltag: deutsche Adaptation mit Hilfe von Strukturgleichungsmodellen (Scale for the assessment of spiritual experiences in everyday life: German adaptation using structural equation models), Diplomarbeit, U of Frankfurt am Main, 2010.


Chant, Vanessa DMin Melbourne College of Divinity 2010 The integration of spirituality into Christian Counseling

Cox, Crystal, Masters of Education, Bowling Green State University, 2011, THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SPIRITUALITY, STRESS, AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE


Tsabary, Shefali, Ph.D Thesis The influences of gender, parenthood and spiritual experiences on depressive symptoms, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, 2008,

Didion, Lea M., Psy.D Aggression and spirituality among veterans with chronic combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder, PEPPERDINE UNIVERSITY, 2009

Pierce, Laura Marinn, “An Exploration of the Relationships among Wellness, Spirituality, and Personal Dispositions of Practicing Professional Counselors” PhD dissertation, University of Tennessee 2010.


Park, Jung H., Doctor of Public Health Thesis (2009). Look Beyond and Rejoice: A spiritual intervention for patients with life-threatening illness or chronic pain. Loma Linda University.

Mosholder, Eleanor, PhD Thesis, The influence of PTSD and spirituality on Navy personnel, REGENT UNIVERSITY, 2007, 3292114

Taranu, Olga, Estudo da Relação entre Resiliência e Espiritualidade numa Amostra Portuguesa (Study of the Relationship Between Spirituality and Resilience in a Portuguese Sample) 2011 PhD Thesis University of Lisbon FACULDADE DE PSICOLOGIA E DE CIÊNCIAS DA EDUCAÇÃO


Pauwlik, Zsuzsa Orsika Subjective Value Categories and Religiousness/Spirituality as Decisive Factors of Mental Health in The Case of College Students, Hungary 2009

Ji Sung Park, PhD Thesis, THE EFFECTS OF PERCEIVED AGE, RELIGIOSITY, AND SPIRITUALITY ON SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING IN MIDDLE AND LATER LIFE University at Albany, State University of New York ,School of Social Welfare,2011, 3466754

Murdock Paul, PhD Thesis, Indiana State University Doctor of Philosophy, Stressful Life Events and Interpersonal, Religious, and Spiritual Changes, 2009

Biedenharn, D. Clare M.A., Ed.S., BCC, Doctor of Ministry, Garrett Theological Seminary, Evanston, Illinois, 2014 A study of critical care nurses’ listening behavior through the application of the Quaker listening model.

Claiborne, Ashley N., Psy.D., JOHN F. KENNEDY UNIVERSITY, 2011, 90 pages; 3552671   Daily experience of spirituality and satisfaction with life in African Americans

Davis-Quirarte, Lesley PsyD, The role of spirituality in self-objectification and body image dissatisfaction in women. Fuller Theological Seminary School of Psychology, 2007, 3351175

Karishma Harlalka, An Exploratory Study of the Relationship between Marital Adjustment and Spirituality.  MA Psychology, Fergusson College Pune, India 2014.

Kerri Grace Parsons, Moral and Ethical Decision making of Physicians and Attorneys: The influence of faith across their lifespans. Texas Tech PhD Thesis Psychology, 1999.