Skip to content


Translation needs to be done carefully as subtlety and simplicity of language is particularly important and cultural sensitivity is needed. Literal translations are not always accurate. See Underwood (2006) for further advice on translating. Lynn is coordinating information on translations and assists at the back translation stage to assure accurate articulation of the underlying construct. Please contact Dr. Underwood regarding usage and translations.

The DSES has been translated into Arabic, Czech, Croatian, Danish, Dutch, Flemish, Filipino, French, Greek, Hebrew, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Latvian, Lithuanian, Malay, Malayalam, Nepalese, Persian, Polish, Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Slovenian, Thai, Turkish, Ukrainian, Urdu, Vietnamese.  Other translations still in development include: Nigerian, Burmese, Albanian, Bangla, Swahili, and Zuni Pueblo. Papers have been published on the psychometric validation of translations of the full 16-item DSES in Mandarin Chinese (Ng, Fong, Tsui, Au-Yeung, & Law, 2009), Indonesian (Qomaruddin & Indawati, 2019), Czech (Maliňáková et al., 2018), Slovak (Soósová & Mauer, 2020), Hindi (Husain & Singh, 2016), German (Schmidt, 2010), Spanish (Mayoral, Underwood, Laca, & Mejía, 2014; Sierra Matamoros, Sánchez Pedraza, & Ibáñez Antequera, 2013), Portugese (Kimura, Oliveira, Mishima, & Underwood, 2012), and a number of other languages. Psychometric evaluations of translations have also often been done when using the translations in studies themselves. Psychometric properties for translated versions of the DSES are strong, with Cronbach’s alphas ranging from 0.86 to 0.98 among those cited above.